4MOST is a fibre-fed, multi-object spectroscopic survey facility to be installed on the VISTA telescope at ESO's Paranal observatory. This paper presents the final mechanical design of the optical fibre route from the fibre positioner at the focal plane of VISTA to the fibre-slits within the high- and low-resolution spectrographs below the azimuth platform. The technical challenges are to provide a safe, durable and efficient fibre route for over 2400 fibres. To accommodate the movements of the telescope, a Cassegrain Cable Wrap and a novel elevation chain concept has been prototyped and extensively tested to validate the design solutions.
4MOST (4-meter Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope) is a wide-field, fiber-feed, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility to be installed on the 4-meter ESO telescope VISTA in Chile. Its backend consists of one high resolution spectrograph and two identical low resolution spectrographs. The instrument is presently in the final design phase (review in May 2018) and is expected to enter full operations at the beginning of 2023 ( and ). The high resolution spectrograph (HRS) will afford simultaneous observations of up to 812 targets – over a hexagonal field of view of ~ 4.1 square degrees on sky – with a spectral resolution R>18,000 covering wavelength ranges between 393 and 679 nm in three channels. The optical design of the instrument is described in detail in . In February 2017 the final design review for the optics was held and passed successfully. The final design review for the mechanics and all other parts of the instrument was held in May 2018. A summary and update of the optical and mechanical design of the HRS are presented in this paper. The detailed status of the manufacturing of the optics is given. The procedures and tools used during the AIT phase for the optical alignment of the HRS system, as well as the performance tests and characterizations are described.
4MOST (4-meter Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope) is a wide-field, fiber-feed, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility to be installed on the 4-meter ESO telescope VISTA in Chile. It consists of two identical low resolution spectrographs and one high resolution spectrograph. The instrument is presently in the preliminary design phase and expected to get operational end of 2022. The high resolution spectrograph will afford simultaneous observations of up to 812 targets - over a hexagonal field of view of ~ 4.1 sq.degrees on sky - with a spectral resolution R>18,000 covering a wavelength range from 393 to 679nm in three channels. In this paper we present the optical and mechanical design of the high resolution spectrograph (HRS) as prepared for the review at ESO, Garching. The expected performance including the highly multiplexed fiber slit concept is simulated and its impact on the optical performance given. We show the thermal and finite element analyses and the resulting stability of the spectrograph under operational conditions.
ARGOS is the Laser Guide Star and Wavefront sensing facility for the Large Binocular Telescope. With first laser light on sky in 2013, the system is currently undergoing commissioning at the telescope. We present the overall status and design, as well as first results on sky. Aiming for a wide field ground layer correction, ARGOS is designed as a multi- Rayleigh beacon adaptive optics system. A total of six powerful pulsed lasers are creating the laser guide stars in constellations above each of the LBTs primary mirrors. With a range gated detection in the wavefront sensors, and the adaptive correction by the deformable secondary’s, we expect ARGOS to enhance the image quality over a large range of seeing conditions. With the two wide field imaging and spectroscopic instruments LUCI1 and LUCI2 as receivers, a wide range of scientific programs will benefit from ARGOS. With an increased resolution, higher encircled energy, both imaging and MOS spectroscopy will be boosted in signal to noise by a large amount. Apart from the wide field correction ARGOS delivers in its ground layer mode, we already foresee the implementation of a hybrid Sodium with Rayleigh beacon combination for a diffraction limited AO performance.
LUCI (former LUCIFER) is the full cryogenic near-infrared multi-object spectrograph and imager at the LBT. It presently allows for seeing limited imaging and multi-object spectroscopy at R~2000-4000 in a 4x4arcmin<sup>2</sup> FOV from 0.9 to 2.5 micron. We report on the instrument performance and the lessons learned during the first two years on sky from a technical and operational point of view. We present the upcoming detector upgrade to Hawaii-2 RG arrays and the operating modes to utilize the binocular mode, the LBT facility AO system for diffraction limited imaging as well as to use the wide-field AO correction afforded by the multi-laser GLAO System ARGOS in multi-object spectroscopy.
ARGOS the Advanced Rayleigh guided Ground layer adaptive Optics System for the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope)
is built by a German-Italian-American consortium. It will be a seeing reducer correcting the turbulence in the lower
atmosphere over a field of 2' radius. In such way we expect to improve the spatial resolution over the seeing of about a
factor of two and more and to increase the throughput for spectroscopy accordingly. In its initial implementation,
ARGOS will feed the two near-infrared spectrograph and imager - LUCI I and LUCI II.
The system consist of six Rayleigh lasers - three per eye of the LBT. The lasers are launched from the back of the
adaptive secondary mirror of the LBT. ARGOS has one wavefront sensor unit per primary mirror of the LBT, each of the
units with three Shack-Hartmann sensors, which are imaged on one detector.
In 2010 and 2011, we already mounted parts of the instrument at the telescope to provide an environment for the main
sub-systems. The commissioning of the instrument will start in 2012 in a staged approach. We will give an overview of
ARGOS and its goals and report about the status and new challenges we encountered during the building phase. Finally
we will give an outlook of the upcoming work, how we will operate it and further possibilities the system enables by
LUCIFER1 is a NIR camera and spectrograph installed at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Working in
the wavelength range of 0.9-2.5micron, the instrument is designed for direct imaging and spectroscopy with 3
different cameras. A set of longslit masks as well as up to 23 user defined (MOS) masks are available. The set
of user defined masks can be exchanged while the instrument is at operating temperature.
Extensive tests have been done on the electro-mechanical functions, image motion due to flexure, optical
quality, instrument software, calibration and especially on the multi-object spectroscopy. Also a detailed characterization
of the instrument's properties in the different observing modes has been carried out. Results are
presented and compared to the specifications.
The LUCIFER-MOS unit is the full cryogenic mask-exchange unit for the near-infrared multi-object spectrograph
LUCIFER at the Large Binocular Telescope. We present the design and functionality of this unique device. In LUCIFER
the masks are stored, handled, and placed in the focal plane under cryogenic conditions at all times, resulting in very low
thermal background emission from the masks during observations. All mask manipulations are done by a novel
cryogenic mask handling robot that can individually address up to 33 fixed and user-provided masks and place them in
the focal plane with high accuracy. A complete mask exchange cycle is done in less than five minutes and can be run in
every instrument position and state reducing instrument setup time during science observations to a minimum. Exchange
of old and new MOS masks is likewise done under cryogenic conditions using a unique exchange drive mechanism and
two auxiliary cryostats that attach to the main instrument cryostat.
LUCIFER 1 is the rst of two identical camera-spectrograph units installed at the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope)
on Mount Graham in Arizona. Its commissioning took place between September 2008 and November
2009 and has immediately been followed by science operations since December 2009.
LUCIFER has a 4x4 arcminute eld of view. It is equipped with a 2048x2048 pixel HAWAII-2 array, suitable
lters (broad-band z, J, H, K & Ks plus 12 medium and narrow band near-infrared lters) and three gratings for
spectroscopy for a resolution of up to 15000. LUCIFER has 3 cameras: two specic for seeing limited imaging
(the N3.75 camera, with 0.12"/pixel) and spectroscopy (the N1.8 camera, with 0.25"/pixel) and one for diraction
limited observations (the N30 camera). We report here about the completed seeing-limited commissioning, thus
using only two of the cameras.
LUCIFER is a NIR spectrograph and imager (wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 micron) for the Large Binocular
Telescope (LBT) on Mt. Graham, Arizona, working at cryogenic temperatures of less than 70K. Two instruments
are built by a consortium of five German institutes and will be mounted at the bent Gregorian foci of the two
individual telescope mirrors. Three exchangable cameras are available for imaging and spectroscopy: two of
them are optimized for seeing-limited conditions, a third camera for the diffraction limited case will be used with
the LBT adaptive secondary mirror working. Up to 33 exchangeable masks are available for longslit or multi-object
spectroscopy (MOS) over the full field of view (FOV). Both MOS-units (LUCIFER 1 and LUCIFER
2) and the auxiliary cryostats together with the control electronics have been completed. The observational
software-package is in its final stage of preparation.
After the total integration of LUCIFER 1 extensive tests were done for all electro-mechanical functions and
the verification of the instrument started. The results of the tests are presented in detail and are compared with