Proc. SPIE. 6072, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VIII
KEYWORDS: Signal to noise ratio, Databases, Interference (communication), Digital watermarking, Feature extraction, Atomic force microscopy, Signal processing, Distance measurement, Algorithm development, Systems modeling
Audio fingerprints can be seen as hashes of the perceptual content of an audio excerpt. Applications include linking metadata to unlabeled audio, watermark support, and broadcast monitoring. Existing systems identify a song by comparing its fingerprint to pre-computed fingerprints in a database. Small changes of the audio induce small differences in the fingerprint. The song is identified if these fingerprint differences are small enough. In addition, we found that distances between fingerprints of the original and a compressed version can be used to estimate the quality (bitrate) of the compressed version. In this paper, we study the relationship between compression bit-rate and fingerprint differences. We present a comparative study of the response to compression using three fingerprint algorithms (each representative for a larger set of algorithms), developed at Philips, Polytechnic University of Milan, and Microsoft, respectively. We have conducted experiments both using the original algorithms and using versions modified to achieve similar operation conditions, i.e., the fingerprints use the same number of bits per second. Our study shows similar behavior for these three algorithms.