In this paper, we provide an overview of state-of-the-art technologies for incoherent laser-produced tin plasma extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) sources at 13.5nm with performance enabling high volume semiconductor manufacturing (HVM). The key elements to development of a stable and reliable source that also meet HVM throughput requirements and the technical challenges for further scaling EUV power to increase productivity are described. Improvements in availability of droplet generation and the performance of critical subsystems that contribute to EUV collection optics lifetime toward the one tera-pulse level, are shown. We describe current research activities and provide a perspective for EUV sources towards the future ASML Scanners.
Semiconductor cascade lasers have larger photon noise than conventional single stage semiconductor lasers as a result of positive correlations in photon emission in different gain stages which are connected electrically in series. The photon noise of
cascade lasers can be related to the photon noise of single stage lasers with scaled external circuit impedances. This scaling relation for the photon noise holds for bipolar as well as unipolar cascade lasers.
This paper explores the development of cascade semiconductor lasers for communications applications. Both interband and intersubband cascade emission devices are examined theoretically and experimentally. The motivation for cascade sources in both high fidelity and high bandwidth applications is presented. The ability to transmit signals with lower signal loss and improved noise performance is verified by measurements on a model systems consisting of series coupled DFB lasers.