<p>An experimental setup with a laser fiber optic probe has been developed, and the vibration dynamics of the vocal folds (VFs) in the larynx of rabbits have been studied. VF vibrations were excited by a variable pressure air stream. We found that, at an air flow pressure of 50 to 60 mm Hg, VFs generate a white vibration noise in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 kHz. The spectrum of excited vibration frequencies becomes narrower when the air flow pressure decreases from 10 to 20 mm Hg, and three discrete lower fundamental frequencies of intrinsic mechanical vibrations of individual VFs are excited at about 360, 750, and 1100 Hz, simultaneously with narrow peaks in the high-frequency region at about 3, 6, and 8 kHz, respectively. The characteristic discrete vibration frequencies of VFs are most efficiently excited near the air flow exhaustion at a pressure of 1 to 5 mm Hg. We detected a difference in the fundamental frequencies of the excited vibrations between intact VF and those treated for a scar defect in one of the VFs. The frequencies of the lowest intrinsic excited modes of the treated VF are slightly higher compared with untreated (intact) VF. The increase in the vibration frequencies may be explained by the growth of VF’s stiffness related to the formation of scar tissue. The mentioned frequency difference was registered with confidence and may serve as a basis for a mildly invasive instrumental diagnostics in the therapy of VF disorders as an aid to a traditional examination and subjective assessment of VF states.</p>
<p>Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a significant interest for cell therapy applications and, being primary cells, undergo gradual aging in culture. We studied the effects of low-intensity infrared laser irradiation during aging of MSCs in culture. Both young and aged MSCs respond to low irradiation doses (0.17 J / cm<sup>2</sup>) by growth activation and to middle doses (2.1 J / cm<sup>2</sup>) by growth retardation. Aged cells demonstrate a relatively higher growth response to low doses, but they are significantly more susceptible to deleterious effects of middle doses compared to young cells. Studies of MSC aging during long-term culture under hypoxia conditions demonstrate that low-dose irradiation of MSCs every 2 days in culture substantially increases the number of population doublings, compared to the control group. In addition, irradiated cells persisted in culture for two passages (4 days) longer than their control counterparts. However, irradiated cells did not proliferate more rapidly if irradiation was omitted. We conclude that growth responses of young and aged murine MSCs to infrared laser irradiation differ significantly and that regular irradiation affects MSC aging in culture but does not result in a bonafide retardation of aging process.</p>
Light field intensity distribution in three-dimensional polylactide scaffolds after irradiation with low-intensity light from one side of the samples has been determined in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. Two different types of scaffolds manufactured by the methods of supercritical fluid foaming and surface selective laser sintering have been investigated. The problem is solved by numerical calculation according to the Monte Carlo method involving experimentally obtained information about effective optical parameters of the scaffold material. Information about intensity distribution of the incident light in the matrix volume is needed to assess the radiation level for the scaffold cells after photobiostimulation. It has been shown that the formation of the light field in case of strongly scattering media, such as polylactide scaffolds, is determined by anisotropy g and the scattering coefficient μs.
A combination of approaches to the image analysis in cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT) and high-resolution imaging by nonlinear microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) at the different stages of atherosclerotic plaque development is studied. This combination allowed us to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the disorganization of collagen in the atherosclerotic arterial tissue (reduction and increase of CP backscatter), at the fiber (change of the geometric distribution of fibers in the second-harmonic generation microscopy images) and fibrillar (violation of packing and different nature of a basket-weave network of fibrils in the AFM images) organization levels. The calculated CP channel-related parameters are shown to have a statistically significant difference between stable and unstable (also called vulnerable) plaques, and hence, CP OCT could be a potentially powerful, minimally invasive method for vulnerable plaques detection.
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) gives a possibility to study and control the surface structure at submicron spatial
scales. The essential problem in studying the surfaces is their adequate parameterization. It is necessary to extract
information from the surface roughness profiles <i>h(x)</i> and <i>h(y)</i> along coordinates <i>x</i> and <i>y</i>. These profiles contain regular (resonant) components as well as chaotic (noisy) components with "long memory". The main questions are
how to extract useful information about the surface state and study the effect of various external factors on it by
analyzing the spatial series <i>h(x)</i> and <i>h(y)</i> and separate out the information contents of chaotic and resonant
components. These problems can be solved by using Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) approach. According to
FNS, the information hidden in chaotic surface profiles is represented by correlation links in sequences of different
types of irregularities: spikes, jumps, and discontinuities in derivatives of different orders at all spatial hierarchical
levels of the systems. In this paper, the FNS is used to parameterize AFM images of sufficiently homogeneous
structures obtained for surfaces of lithium fluoride single crystals as well as two dendritic (treelike) structures
formed on mica surface from solutions of surfactant copolymers.