<p> Cyber physical systems (CPS) enable applications not previously possible by networking components incorporating tightly connected physical and computational (cyber) functions. </p> <p> We propose a method for studying and optimizing such systems at an early development stage by using simulation. Models, which mimic the cyber physical components behaviour, combine analytical models for the physical part with neural network models for the cyber part. Such models are computationally efficient, can be easily upgraded and can be networked to simulate even large scale cyber physical systems. </p> <p> Applications for studying architectural issues, overall reliability and commercial aspects of cyber physical energy systems will be discussed. </p>
Amongst the various sensing principles studied for use in optical fiber sensors, color coding has proven to be successful in commercial applications. Color coded sensors are based on commercially available and easy to handle components (i.e. LED's, lasers, multimode fibers) and the same basic optoelectronics can be used for a wide variety of applications. Such applications are: the remote measurement of chemical composition (pH, hydrogen, oxygen, aromatic hydrocarbons, humidity etc.), biochemical reactions and physical parameters (e.g. temperature, pressure, etc.) in medical applications (e.g. blood gas analysis, immunosensors, etc.), environmental monitoring, process control and on the factory floor. A versatile transmitter/receiver-module, which can be easily customized, has been developed as a multi chip module (MCM). This MCM can be directly mounted onto the printed circuit board, is small in size (50 X 50 X 12 mm<SUP>3</SUP>) and contains all optical, optoelectronic and electronic components and circuits to interface optically with the sensors and electrically with the microprocessor and its associated circuitry used for data analysis. Up to four sensors can be connected to one module and individually interrogated under software control. The design and the characteristics of the MCM as well as its application in possible sensor arrangements will be discussed with special emphasis on its use in a four channel fiber optic temperature sensor.
Easy-to-use and cost-effective fiber optic sensor modules serving as an interface between fiber-optic sensors and signal processing circuitry are of paramount importance for broad acceptance of fiber optic sensing. Fully integrated PCB-mountable modules which incorporate all the functions necessary to drive amplitude modulated or wavelength encoded fiber optic sensors are discussed. They contain LEDs emitting on different wavelengths, wavelength division multiplexers receivers, and star-couplers to realize sensor networks.