Full-field imaging with a developmental projection optic box (POB 1) was successfully demonstrated in the alpha tool Engineering Test Stand (ETS) last year. Since then, numerous improvements, including laser power for the laser-produced plasma (LPP) source, stages, sensors, and control system have been made. The LPP has been upgraded from the 40 W LPP cluster jet source used for initial demonstration of full-field imaging to a high-power (1500 W) LPP source with a liquid Xe spray jet. Scanned lithography at various laser drive powers of >500 W has been demonstrated with virtually identical lithographic performance.
The EUV Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is a full field, alpha class Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) tool that has demonstrated the printing of 70 nm resolution scanned images. The tool employs
Mo/Si multilayer optics that reflect EUV radiation (13.4nm / 92.5eV) with ~67% peak reflectance per optic. For good reflectivity, many (greater than or equal to 40)Mo/Si layers must be present. Consequently, processes such as plasma induced multilayer erosion, which reduces the number of bilayer pairs on plasma facing optics, need to be understood. Since most materials readily absorb EUV photons, it is important to prevent contamination of mirror surfaces with EUV absorbing material. Contamination can occur by EUV photons “cracking” hydrocarbons or other species absorbed on the optical surfaces. The first ETS condenser component, referred to as C1, is coated with Mo/Si multilayers. Data collected from Mo/Si witness plates placed at the C1 position indicate erosion, using the Xe Laser Produced Plasma (LPP) spray jet, of 1 bilayer per ~15 million shots. Preliminary experiments with a filament jet yielded a significantly higher erosion rate. In the spray jet studies, erosion was found to depend sensitively on the composition of the residual background environment. Addition of low levels, ~7x10<sup>-7</sup> Torr, of H<sub>2</sub>O to the vacuum background produced oxidation of the Si cap, and significantly slowed spray jet induced erosion. Operation of the plasma changed the environment in the Illuminator Chamber from oxidizing to carbonizing, thereby changing the nature of the contamination found environment at the C3 optic which does not view the plasma directly (and therefore does not erode). The change in environment is attributed to plasma induced outgassing of fluorocarbons in the Illuminator. Due to the non zero conductance
between the Illuminator and Main Chambers, fluorocarbons were also found in the Main Chamber during Xe LPP operation. RGA data are presented that document the effect. In the presence of such outgassing, Carbon deposition rates were measured for the C3, and P.O. Box optics. For C3, a C deposition rate of 3 angstrom / 10 million shots was found, while for the PO Box, a C deposition rate of 0.02 angstrom / 10 million shots was found from the data. All data was acquired with no attempt to mitigate C deposition with gas phase additives such as O<sub>2</sub>.
Carbon contamination removal was investigated using remote RF-O2, RF-H2, and atomic hydrogen experiments. Samples consisted of silicon wafers coated with 100 Angstrom sputtered carbon, as well as bare Si-capped Mo/Si optics. Samples were exposed to atomic hydrogen or RF plasma discharges at 100 W, 200 W, and 300 W. Carbon removal rate, optic oxidation rate, at-wavelength (13.4 nm) peak reflectance, and optic surface roughness were characterized. Data show that RF- O2 removes carbon at a rate approximately 6 times faster RF- H2 for a given discharge power. However, both cleaning techniques induce Mo/Si optic degradation through the loss of reflectivity associated with surface oxide growth for RF-O2 and an unknown mechanism with hydrogen cleaning. Atomic hydrogen cleaning shows carbon removal rates sufficient for use as an in-situ cleaning strategy for EUVoptics with less risk of optic degradation from overexposures than RF-discharge cleaning. While hydrogen cleaning (RF and atomic) of EUV optics has proven effective in carbon removal, attempts to dissociate hydrogen in co-exposures with EUV radiation have resulted in no detectable removal of carbon contamination.
The EUV Engineering Test Stand (ETS) has demonstrated the printing of 100 nm resolution scanned images. This milestone was achieved with the ETS operating in an initial low-power configuration using a 40 W laser combined with a Xe cluster jet. The third condenser component is referred to as 'C3' illuminator optics was removed after this low-power operation, and extensively characterized for EUV-induced contamination. EUV reflectivity data indicate a decrease in reflectivity from an initial 66 percent to approximately 48- 56 percent, with the more intensely illuminated areas of the C3 having the smaller final reflectivity. Auger electron spectroscopy indicated the observed reflectivity decrease can be largely attributed to carbon contamination, approximately 150-300 Angstrom thick depending on location. No evidence was found for optic oxidation, indicating EtOH successfully prevented EUV/H<SUB>2</SUB>O oxidation of the outermost Si layer during exposure to both EUV and out-of- band radiation. Measurements of the reflectivity centroid wavelength shoed a negligible change, suggesting the observed variations were due to surface contaminating and not bulk multilayer radiation damage. The carbon contamination could be removed by RF-O<SUB>2</SUB> cleaning.
The first environmental data from the Engineering Test Stand (ETS) has been collected. Excellent control of high-mass hydrocarbons has been observed. This control is a result of extensive outgas testing of components and materials, vacuum compatible design of the ETS, careful cleaning of parts and pre-baking of cables and sub assemblies where possible, and clean assembly procedures. As a result of the hydrocarbon control, the residual ETS vacuum environment is rich in water vapor. Analysis of witness plate data indicates that the ETS environment does not pose a contamination risk to the optics in the absence of EUV irradiation. However, with EUV exposure, the water rich environment can lead to EUV- induced water oxidation of the Si-terminated Mo/Si optics. Added ethanol can prevent optic oxidation, allowing carbon growth via EUV cracking of low-level residual hydrocarbons to occur. The EUV environmental issues are understood, mitigation approaches have been validated, and EUV optic contamination appears to be manageable.
Carbon deposition and removal experiments on Mo/Si multilayer mirror (MLM) samples were performed using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light on Beamline 18.104.22.168 of the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Carbon (C) was deposited onto Mo/Si multilayer mirror (MLM) samples when hydrocarbon vapors where intentionally introduced into the MLM test chamber in the presence of EUV at 13.44 nm (92.3eV). The carbon deposits so formed were removed by molecular oxygen + EUV. The MLM reflectivities and photoemission were measured in-situ during these carbon deposition and cleaning procedures. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) sputter-through profiling of the samples was performed after experimental runs to help determine C layer thickness and the near-surface compositional-depth profiles of all samples studied. EUV powers were varied from ~0.2mW/mm<SUP>2</SUP> to 3mW/mm<SUP>2</SUP>(at 13.44 nm) during both deposition and cleaning experiments and the oxygen pressure ranged from ~5x10<SUP>-5</SUP> to 5x10<SUP>-4</SUP> Torr during the cleaning experiments. C deposition rates as high as ~8nm/hr were observed, while cleaning rates as high as ~5nm/hr could be achieved when the highest oxygen pressure were used. A limited set of experiments involving intentional oxygen-only exposure of the MLM samples showed that slow oxidation of the MLM surface could occur.