Ion-exchange in glass substrate has long been an enabling technology for optical waveguides device manufacturing.
Thus, in the last years, hybridization of ion-exchanged glass waveguides components has become a promising method
for functional integration. In that context, we propose a Integrated acousto-optic Polarization Analyzer Sensor (IPAS)
made by ion-exchange in a glass substrate. The IPAS consists in two Y-junctions that give three different outputs. The
first one is simply one output waveguides of the first Y-junction. The two other outputs are the waveguides following the
second Y-junction. A piezoelectric plate is placed over the entrance waveguide of the second Y-junction. It creates an
artificial anisotropy when it is excited electrically. For each one of the three output signals, a polarizer is inserted
between the waveguide's end and a photodetector. The IPAS is a compact hybrid realization insensitive to vibrations and
easy to realize. It is capable to determine, with adequate signal processing, the polarization state of a light beam.
Experimental results are obtained with a single buried straight waveguide made by low birefringence Ag+↔Na+ ion-exchange.
The measured polarization state is compared with a commercial polarization analyzer.
In this paper, we propose a novel integrated polarization analyzer sensor (IPAS) made by ion exchange on a glass substrate. It is capable to determine the polarization state of a light beam: elliptical, circular or linear. Furthermore, in the first case, the sensor measures the ellipse's eccentricity and the angle between its major axis and the x-axis of the IPAS (parallel to the glass' top surface). Also, for linear polarization, the angle between polarization direction and the x-axis of the IPAS is measured.
The IPAS consists in two Y-junctions that gives three different outputs. The first one is directly one of the two output waveguides of the first Y-junction. The two other outputs are the waveguides following the second Y-junction. Before the latter, a piezoelectric plate creates an artificial anisotropy when it is excited electrically. For each one of the three output signals, a polarizer is inserted between the waveguide's end and a photo-detector. It is demonstrated here that, with adequate signal processing, it is possible to obtain all the information on the polarization state of a light beam.
Optical interferometer displacement sensors are well known for their high resolution, up to 10-7 m in a stabilised environment, over a wide measuring range which can reach several meters. Moreover, the measures are carried out without any mechanical contact with the target object. Two optical outputs are however needed to determine the displacement direction. A glass integrated sensor with only one optical output that still measures the displacement direction is proposed here. It is derived from a Michelson interferometer but is realised by ion-exchange on a glass substrate. A piezoelectric element placed over the reference arm produces a longitudinal acoustic wave that creates a small phase modulation on the reference light beam at a high frequency (1.28 MHz). A small modulation of the output signal is thus produced. The direction determination is based on the comparison between the phases of the excitation acoustic signal and of the high frequency part of the sensor's output signal after proper signal processing. A theoretical and an experimental demonstration of that principle are presented. A precision of 158 nm was obtained with a simple numerical signal processing.
An elastic beam of waves in the Megahertz range, generated using a PZT ceramic, crosses one arm of an integrated Mac-Zehnder interferometer realised by ion-exchange in a glass substrate. Elastic waves modify locally the refractive index of glass. A laser beam of 0.83 μm wavelength is injected into the interferometer. For a sine excitation voltage of 7 volts of the piezoelectric transducer, the variation of the optical intensity measured at the interferometer output is greater than 20% of the intensity observed without elastic waves. Refractive index variation of 9.4×10-7 were obtained. The optical intensity observed at the output of the interferometer varies at the frequency of the piezoelectric crystal excitation. A model taking into account the elastic and the optical effects is proposed. This model allows the optimisation of the piezoelectric transducer in order to obtain the maximum of elastic strain at the position of the optical waveguides. The theoretical results obtained with the model are in accordance with the experimental results.