CO2 sensing using self-fabricated all-fiber gas cells based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber and chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy (CLaDS) is presented. I show that CLaDS enables significant reduction of optical fringes arising from the mutlimode nature of the air-core photonic bandgap (PBG) fiber, hence improving the gas sensing system’s stability and performance. By carefully selecting modulation frequency, it is possible to match the period of interference signal (resulting from coupling between fiber’s guided modes) and, therefore, suppress its contribution to the retrieved signal. CLaDS enables successful use of hollow-core PBG fibers in gas sensing applications.
In this work we analyze two aspects of our research towards a laser-based setup for open-path hydrogen sulfide detection. We demonstrate a compact and portable electronic part of the sensing system that can be constructed solely with commercially available, off-the-shelf components. Comparison with the setup that uses benchtop lock-in amplifier for signal demodulation is presented. We also discuss challenges in spectral modelling of H<sub>2</sub>S transitions in the near-IR spectral region using the data available in HITRAN base. We show that in order to perform correct spectral simulations (for both direct absorption spectroscopy and wavelength modulation spectroscopy) appropriate corrections to the data available in the database have to be applied.
In this work we present a laser-based system for standoff/remote, sensitive detection of gases based on a tunable diode laser source and Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy method (WMS). System performance was experimentally characterized. The constructed device has proven its capacity of efficient detection of methane in air at the single ppm levels and distances from 10 to 50 m (distance to a scattering object). The minimum detection limit of the system was estimated at the level of 10 ppm-m for the standoff arrangement and the measurement path of approximately 20 m (round trip). Potential application of the device to hydrogen sulfide detection and current limitations in this area are discussed.