Fabrication of approx. 3 THz Al0.15Ga0.85As/GaAs QCLs grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy equipped with Ta/Cu or Ti/Cu waveguide claddings will be presented.
Our previous studies showed that copper layers as the waveguide claddings are most promising in THz QCLs technology. The theoretical predictions showed that lasers with Ti/Cu or Ta/Cu claddings (where Ti and Ta play the role of diffusion barriers and improve adhesion) show the smallest waveguide losses when compared with other metals. The main important issue of the presentation will be the wafer bonding of the QCL active region and GaAs receptor wafer. We will compare the results of ex-situ and in-situ bonding technology. The structures were tested by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). Our studies show that it was necessary to apply at least 5 nm-thick diffusion-barrier layers, as well as to keep all of the process temperatures below 400C in order to ensure the barrier tightness. The next important issue was control of composition of metallic claddings, in order to provide the control of the refractive index profiles of the claddings.
The ridge structure lasers were fabricated with ridge width in the range 100 – 140 µm, formed by dry plasma etching in BCl3/Cl2/Ar mixture in ICP RIE system.
The lasers operated with threshold current densities of approx. 1.2 kA/cm2 at 77 K and the Tmax = 130 K, when fed by 100-300 ns current pulses supplied with 0.3-1 kHz repetition frequencies.
*This research is supported by The National Centre for Research and Development (bilateral cooperation, project no. 1/POLTUR-1/2016) and TUBITAK (Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) project number 215E113.
In this paper, the design and technology of two types of 16-element photodiode arrays is described. The arrays were developed by the ITE and are to be used in detection of microdeflection of laser radiation at the Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering in the Faculty of Mechatronics of Warsaw University of Technology.
The electrical and photoelectrical parameters of the arrays are presented.
In this paper we present a new method of polymer microfluidic bioreactor fabrication by means of a gray scale lithography technique. As a result of the gray scale lithography process the 3D model of the bioreactor is defined in photoresist. The obtained model serves as a sacrificial layer for the subsequent transfer of the 3D shape into the polymer material. The proposed method allows simultaneous definition of both the overall bioreactor geometry and the multi steps cell traps in a single photolithography step. Such microfluidic structure can be used for sorting cells based on their size. The developed solution significantly simplifies the production technology and reduces its costs in comparison to standard photolithography techniques.
In this paper we describe the method for monitoring the progress of electrochemical deposition process. The procedure allows to control the deposition of metals as well as conductive polymers on metallic seed layer. The method is particularly useful to very thin layers (1-10 nm) of deposited medium which mechanical or optical methods are troublesome for. In this method deposit is grown on the target and on the test silicon micro-cantilever with a metal pad. Galvanic deposition on the cantilever causes the change of its mass and consequently the change of its resonance frequency. Changes of the frequency is measured with laser vibro-meter then the layer thicknesses can be estimated basing on the cantilever calibration curve. Applying this method for controlling of gold deposition on platinum seed layer, for improving the properties of the biochemical sensors, is described in this paper.
The subject of this paper is to describe the novel method of substrates bonding applied in MEMS technology.
This method gives a possibility of carrying out bonding processes in standard devices for wafer bonding. It
can be applied to chemical, high voltage or high temperature sensitive surfaces. It can be used for bonding
substrates with deep etching area with sharp edges and covered with films characterized by low adhesion to the
classical materials exploited for photolithography. The main idea of the method is based on two various polymer
materials usage. The first material enables to define accurate borders of bonding area, whereas the other
guarantees suitable parameters of bonding: firstly the exact adhesion and a stable join and secondly, desirable
electrical or thermal parameters.
This paper describes the idea of the energy harvester which converts thermal gradient present in environment into
electricity. Two kinds of such devices are proposed and their prototypes are shown and discussed. The main parts of
harvesters are bimetallic spring, piezoelectric transducer or electrostatic transducer with electret. The applied piezomembrane
was commercial available product but electrets was made by authors. In the paper a fabrication procedure of
electrets formed by the corona discharge process is described. Devices were compared in terms of generated power,
charging current, and the voltage across a storage capacitor.
The total concentration of heavy metal ions was measured with the use of a highly sensitive reagent (4-(2-pyridylzo)-resorcinol (PAR)). Because of PAR chelates are slightly soluble in water and their forming is not selective, the analytical procedure for Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn determination was developed to perform the analysis in an aqueous environment without the need of inconvenient and time-consuming extraction. A proposed analysis method is more useful in comparison with classical FIA analysis what is crucial during fast classification of various natural water samples. To minimize the chemicals consumption such a classification can be performed in a specially designed microsystem. The Y- shape microchannel structure with a mixing area was made by fine engraving in PMMA plate and sealed with the PDMS one. The M2+-PAR complex forming conditions were determined for each of the chosen metal ions. The solubility of formed complexes was better when a micellar environment was created by the addition of a non-ionic surfactant (Triton X100). Next the synthetic mixtures of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn ions were prepared to obtain total molar metal ions concentration in the range from 10-6 to 10-4 M and measured after on-chip reaction. A tap water and HAC-sample (Highest Allowable Concentration, ΣMe=1,2•10-5 M) were also measured. The detection was performed in a special flow cuvette and spectra measurements were carried out using diode array spectrophotometer and CCD detector.