High gamma smartphones based on Android operating system support the development of third-party applications. This kind of devices include subsystems such as sensors and actuators which can be used for diverse purposes. One example is the implementation of short range visible light communication (VLC) channels where the built-in light-emitting diode (LED) is the transmitter, and the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) camera works as the receiver. A major challenge for this communication channel is the modulation bandwidth of the light source which is limited to a few MHz, and the availability of a line-of-sight. The camera shutter is limited to a few frames per second (30 or 60 fps) for a few bits per second transmission, but the Rolling Shutter effect could allow the enhancement of the bit rate. In this work, we propose a VLC protocol design for the use of the built-in camera and the flash LED in order to implement a short range VLC channel, for high gamma mobile-to-mobile devices based on Android. The design is based on On-Off Keying (OOK) modulation for initially transmitting a few bits. Based on the rolling shutter effect in the CMOS image sensor, bright and dark fringes can be observed within each received frame, and the data can then be retrieved. Furthermore, two thresholding schemes for high fluctuation and large extinction ratio (ER) variations in each frame, are explored. Full protocol design and short range (5 cm), >100 kbits/s, VLC demonstration and image processing results will be included in the presentation.
The modal characteristics of tapered single mode optical fibers and its strain sensing characteristics by using mechanically induced long period fiber gratings are presented in this work. Both Long Period Fiber Gratings (LPFG) and fiber tapers are fiber devices that couple light from the core fiber into the fiber cladding modes. The mechanical LPFG is made up of two plates, one flat and the other grooved. For this experiment the grooved plate was done on an acrylic slab with the help of a computer numerical control machine. The manufacturing of the tapered fiber is accomplished by applying heat using an oxygen-propane flame burner and stretching the fiber, which protective coating has been removed. Then, a polymer-tube-package is added in order to make the sensor sufficiently stiff for the tests. The mechanical induced LPFG is accomplished by putting the tapered fiber in between the two plates, so the taper acquires the form of the grooved plate slots. Using a laser beam the transmission spectrum showed a large peak transmission attenuation of around -20 dB. The resultant attenuation peak wavelength in the transmission spectrum shifts with changes in tension showing a strain sensitivity of 2pm/μɛ. This reveals an improvement on the sensitivity for structure monitoring applications compared with the use of a standard optical fiber. In addition to the experimental work, the supporting theory and numerical simulation analysis are also included.
Lately, there has been a huge demand for smart structures. In particular the interest has growth in those structures able to detect deterioration conditions and possible failure. Failure prevention requires an appropriate monitoring and maintenance system. Currently, there are available several types of sensors capable of detecting problems in structures, among them, sensors based on optical fibers have been proposed as they represent a non-invasive technique. Some optical fiber sensors are based on Bragg gratings. A grating is a periodical index perturbation of the fiber core which is most commonly achieved through UV radiation. Another technique used to fabricate the gratings, which has not been studied extensively, is electric arc. Therefore, in this work we propose the use of this technique to fabricate fiber optical sensors based on Long Period Fiber Gratings (LPFG). Manufacturing LPFG through electric arc has the advantage of being quite flexible, inexpensive, present very high temperature stability and can be applied to any type of optical fiber. LPFG with a period of 500 microns and 20 mm of length were fabricated through electric arc on standard monomode fibers with the help of a fusion machine and its spectrum was observed by an Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA). This type of LPFG is tunable by changing the fabrication parameters of the electric arc which in turns will vary its sensitivity to measure strain on structures when it is used as a sensor. Also, in this paper a theoretical and analytical examination of arc induced LPFG is presented. Mathematical analysis and simulation of the sensor based on LPFG were carried out using the software MATLAB.
This work presents preliminary results on wavelength sensitivity due to mechanically induced long period fiber grating (LPFG) on both standard single-mode and Er-doped fibers. The work presents and compares results for both types of fibers under different torsion conditions. In order to apply the torsion one of the fiber ends is fixed while torsion is applied on the other end. A LPFG whose period is 503μm is used to press on the fiber after the torsion, this will allow for micro curvatures to be formed on the fiber, which will in turn generate a periodical index perturbation on it. Here, it was noted that the rejection band shifts to shorter wavelengths for Er-doped fibers. It was detected that for torsion of 6 turns applied to 10cm doped fiber the wavelength peaks can shift up to 25nm, which is longer than similar results reported on standard fibers. Therefore, by using Er-doped fibers this technique will give more sensitive and accurate results on the real conditions of the structure under study. These results can be employed for sensing applications, especially for small to medium size structures, being these structures mechanical, civil or aeronautical. Theoretical calculations and simulations are employed for experimental results validation.