Subwavelength gratings exhibit attractive polarizing properties and have promising applications in communication, optical information processing, holography, and displays. The fabrication of subwavelength binary gratings for operation as polarizing beam splitters (PBS) at a wavelength of 1550 nm is presented. A simplified modal method was used for the design as well as to predict the efficiencies of the polarization components in each order. Electron beam lithography has been employed for patterning subwavelength grating structures on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resist. The fixed beam moving stage patterning mode is used for patterning gratings with a period of 936 nm and width of 374 nm. The exposure and developing parameters are optimized to realize the grating with the designed feature sizes on PMMA resist. Gratings patterned using the optimized exposure and development parameters match well with the design, except for the height. The performance of the fabricated PBS grating has been evaluated by optical testing. The experimental results match well with the predictions.
The design and fabrication of transmission subwavelength binary gratings for operation as polarizing beam splitters
(PBSs) at 1550 nm is presented in this paper. An analytical method called the modal method was used for the design as
well as to predict the efficiencies of the polarization components in each order. Electron beam lithography has been
employed to fabricate the subwavelength grating structures on poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). The performance of
the fabricated PBS has been evaluated by optical testing.
In the past, UV lithography has been used extensively for the fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). The advantage of this technique is that the entire structure can be written at one time, however, the minimum feature size is limited to about 1 μm. Many 1-d and 2-d periodic grating structures may not need such fine details but it is essential for diffractive optics with circular structures. This is because the spacing between features typically decreases towards the edge of the element resulting in the smallest feature falling well below 1 μm. 1-d structures such as sub-wavelength gratings will also have smaller feature sizes throughout the structure. In such cases, advanced techniques such as Focused Ion Beam and Electron-beam Lithography are required for the fabrication of finer structures. In this paper, we present results of DOEs fabricated with a focused ion beam system (Nova Nanolab 600 from FEI) directly on a single mode fibre tip. The ability to write DOEs directly on fibre tip is of great importance in fields such as endoscopy and optical trapping. The DOE itself, transforms the laser beam to a phase and intensity profile that matches the requirement. Because it is located directly on the fibre, no extra alignment is required. In addition, the system becomes more compact, which is especially important for applications in the field of endoscopy. The main goal of the present work was to develop the most accurate method for creating the desired pattern (that is, the DOE structure) into an actually working element. Different exposure strategies for writing test structures directly with the ion beam on the fibre tip have been tested and carefully evaluated. The paper will present in detail the initial fabrication and optical test results for blazed and binary structures of 1-d and circularly symmetric Fresnel axicons on optical fibres.
A focused Ga+ ion beam is used to mill a multilevel spiral phase plate at an acceleration voltage of 30 kV. Circular spiral phase plate with eight levels is fabricated directly on an indium-tin-oxide coated glass plate. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrate the realization of multilevel phase plate on glass plate using focused ion beam milling.
This article reports a study done on eosin-doped poly(vinyl alcohol)/acrylamide films for holographic recording using 488 nm Ar+ laser. Films were fabricated using gravity settling method at room temperature and were stored under normal laboratory conditions. Ar+ laser (488 nm) was used for fringe recording. Characterization was done by real time transmittance measurement, optical absorption studies, and diffraction efficiency measurements. Various holographic parameters such as exposure energy, recording power, spatial frequency, etc., were optimized so as to ensure maximum performance. More than 85% diffraction efficiency was obtained at an exposure energy of 50 mJ/cm2 in the optimized film. Efforts were taken to study the environmental stability of this self-developing polymeric material by looking at its shelf life and storage life. Compatibility for recording transmission hologram was also checked.