Carbon contamination on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) multi-layer mirror is a seriously restrictive factor for lithography quality, chip output and life of lithography machine. In order to estimate the carbon contamination of EUV multi-layer and study the mechanism of carbon contamination deeply, an effective theoretical model of the carbon deposition on the multi-layer surface and experimental equipment for studying the carbon contamination are established. The theoretical model describes the transport of residual hydrocarbons to the irradiated area and the subsequent dissociation of the hydrocarbon by direct EUV radiation and secondary electron excitation, and indicates that the direct EUV radiation is the primary reason to dissociate the hydrocarbon, and makes the carbon deposited on the surface of multi-layer. Various carbon deposition states are simulated by the theoretical model, and some effective simulated results are obtained. Optical design scheme and structure design scheme of the experimental equipment are presented. The optical system includes two spherical multi-layer mirrors and a plane mirror multi-layer mirror. Ray trace and EUV intensity on sample are calculated, the light spot on sample is about Φ10mm and the EUV intensity is about 0.126mW/mm<sup>2</sup>. Structure of the experimental equipment includes adjusting mechanism of two spherical mirrors, rotary mechanism of plane mirror, alignment mechanism of EUV source, adjusting mechanism of sample, and so on. After testing, linear resolution and angle resolution of two spherical mirrors adjusting mechanism are 1μm and 5μrad respectively; linear displacement and linear resolution of sample adjusting mechanism are 50mm and 1μm respectively. The structure design scheme meets the requirement of the carbon contamination experiment.
The work on laser varicose treatment carried out in CIOMP, CAS cooperating with The First Clinical Hospital, Jilin
University is summarized. Dozens of animal experiments adopting dog and rabbit samples are made in a long time of
several years. Different lasers are used, including long pulse frequency-doubled Nd:YAG(532nm) and semiconductor
laser(808nm). Dozens of animal experiments show that laser has good efficacy to occlude the vein vessels. It has precise
adjustability and relatively short treatment time only needing outpatient office setting with high cost and effect rate; It
provides minimal invasion, often under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation thereby eliminating the need for
general anesthesia, greatly shortens postoperative recovery term, and it is highly safe with no side effects and no serious
Laser treatment represents an attractive option to other methods of vessel diseases especially varicose veins. A long pulse (30~50ms) 532nm laser (Fig.1) is used in our experiments with the pulse duration matching the thermal relaxation time of the vessels and the green laser matching the absorption spectrum peak of the blood. Laser irradiates nude vein vessels directly or exterior skin to finish operation faster and to acquire the practical data for upper enteron varicose vein treatment in several animal experiments performed in vivo. The 5J-energy pulse allows us to finely occlude rabbit or dog’s vein vessels up to 2 mm in diameter when irradiating them off external skin (Fig.2). Blood vessels are occluded at once and later biopsy specimens show the immediate and long-term lasting occlusion effect. While irradiating vessels directly (Fig.3), the vessels are usually irradiated to perforate, detailed causes are still under investigation. Animal experiments show long pulse green laser therapy is a safe and effective solution to the vein’s occlusion, which promises such laser with high energy of each pulse and 30~50 ms duration is an ideal candidate for vessel diseases treatment.