In this paper, a multi-line interferogram stitching method based on orthogonal shear using the Wollaston prism(WP) was proposed with a 2D projection interferogram recorded through the rotation of CCD, making the spectral resolution of Fourier-Transform spectrometer(FTS) of a limited spatial size increase by at least three times. The fringes on multi-lines were linked with the pixels of equal optical path difference (OPD). Ideally, the error of sampled phase within one pixel was less than half the wavelength, ensuring consecutive values in the over-sampled dimension while aliasing in another. In the simulation, with the calibration of 1.064μm, spectral lines at 1.31μm and 1.56μm of equal intensity were tested and observed. The result showed a bias of 0.13% at 1.31μm and 1.15% at 1.56μm in amplitude, and the FWHM at 1.31μm reduced from 25nm to 8nm after the sample points increased from 320 to 960. In the comparison of reflectance spectrum of carnauba wax within near infrared(NIR) band, the absorption peak at 1.2μm was more obvious and zoom of the band 1.38~1.43μm closer to the reference, although some fluctuation was in the short-wavelength region arousing the spectral crosstalk. In conclusion, with orthogonal shear based on the rotation of the CCD relative to the axis of WP, the spectral resolution of static FTS was enhanced by the projection of fringes to the grid coordinates and stitching the interferograms into a larger OPD, which showed the advantages of cost and miniaturization in the space-constrained NIR applications.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an important technique in studying molecular energy levels, analyzing material compositions, and environmental pollutants detection. A novel rotational motion Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with high stability and ultra-rapid scanning characteristics is proposed in this paper. The basic principle, the optical path difference (OPD) calculations, and some tolerance analysis are elaborated. The OPD of this spectrometer is obtained by the continuously rotational motion of a pair of parallel mirrors instead of the translational motion in traditional Michelson interferometer. Because of the rotational motion, it avoids the tilt problems occurred in the translational motion Michelson interferometer. There is a cosine function relationship between the OPD and the rotating angle of the parallel mirrors. An optical model is setup in non-sequential mode of the ZEMAX software, and the interferogram of a monochromatic light is simulated using ray tracing method. The simulated interferogram is consistent with the theoretically calculated interferogram. As the rotating mirrors are the only moving elements in this spectrometer, the parallelism of the rotating mirrors and the vibration during the scan are analyzed. The vibration of the parallel mirrors is the main error during the rotation. This high stability and ultra-rapid scanning Fourier transform infrared spectrometer is a suitable candidate for airborne and space-borne remote sensing spectrometer.
Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) is a Fourier-transform spectroscopic technique with many advantages, such as
high throughput, good robustness (no moving parts), and high resolving power. However, in the basic theory of SHS, the
relationship between the wavenumber and the frequency of the interferogram is approximated to be linear. This
approximation limits the spectral range of a spatial heterodyne spectrometer to a narrow band near the Littrow
wavenumber. Several methods have been developed to extend the spectral range of the SHS. They use echelle gratings or
tunable pilot mirrors to make a SHS instrument work at multiple narrow spectral bands near different Littrow
wavenumbers. These solutions still utilize the linear relationship between the wavenumber and the frequency of the
interferogram. But they need to separate different spectral bands, and this will increase the difficulty of post processing
and the complexity of the SHS system. Here, we solve this problem from another perspective: making a SHS system
work at one broad spectral band instead of multiple narrow spectral bands. As in a broad spectral range, the frequency of
the interferogram will not be linear with respect to the wavenumber anymore. According to this non-linear relationship,
we propose a broadband spectral inversion method based on the stationary phase theory. At first, we describe the
principles and the basic characters of SHS. Then, the narrow band limitation is analyzed and the broadband spectral
inversion method is elaborated. In the end, we present a parameter design example of the SHS system according to a
given spectral range, and the effectiveness of this method is validated with a spectral simulation example. This
broadband spectral inversion method can be applied to the existing SHS system without changing or inserting any
moving components. This method retains the advantages of SHS and there is almost no increase in complexity for post
Proc. SPIE. 9142, Selected Papers from Conferences of the Photoelectronic Technology Committee of the Chinese Society of Astronautics: Optical Imaging, Remote Sensing, and Laser-Matter Interaction 2013
In the field of Fourier-transform spectroscopy, tilt and shearing problems caused by the moving components in a translational type of spectrometer reduce the quality of the interferogram dramatically. While, the spectrometer based on rotational motion can avoid these problems. In this paper, a novel rotational type of interferometer, called rotating parallel-mirror-pair interferometer (RPMPI), is presented. Its principle and properties are studied. This interferometer consists of one beam splitter, two fixed flat mirrors, and one rotating wedged parallel-mirror-pair (PMP). The optical path difference (OPD) is obtained by the rotational motion of the PMP. Factors that affect the maximum OPD include the wedged angle of the rotating PMP, the distance between the two parallel mirrors, the direction of the incident ray, and the range of rotating angle. This interferometer can operate either in swinging mode or continuous rotary mode depending on the range of the rotating angle. In swinging mode, the OPD function is linear. In continuous rotary mode, the sampling efficiency is higher and it can operate as an ultra rapid scanning interferometer.