In this paper, a visible spectral multi-spectral imaging system with spectral resolution better than 14nm is designed. The system uses dual Amici dispersive prisms as the optical splitters to provide the parallel beam dispersion with the widen spectral range. When designed, the fore-telescope、collimating lens and imaging objective lens adopt telecentric structure to facilitate pupil matching, and the directed characters of dual Amici prisms make the coaxial design realized. The spectral range is 400nm-900nm, the relative aperture is 1/2.4, the optical design software CodeV is used for ray tracing and optimization of the spectral imaging system, and the design results are analyzed. The analysis result show that the optical modulate transfer function has reached 0.75 or more in each spectral segment of the optical system, the spectral resolution is better than 14nm, the smile and keystone are better than 5um, meeting the design requirements. The system has the features of widen spectral range, the smaller of the smile and keystone.
Detection and recognition of space objects with ground-based photoelectric systems is one of the major technical ways for space situational awareness. During the past thirty years, there has been significant development of optical telescopes dedicated to wide-field surveys of time-dependent deep space phenomena, slow-moving near-earth objects (NEOs) and fast-moving earth-orbiting space debris. While telescope fields of view have gradually increased, a single technical approach has not emerged as the dominant design. To design an effective wide-field telescope for sky survey or space surveillance, It is necessary to carefully match the characteristics of the optical system (layout, aperture, focal ratio and modulation transfer function) with those of the observing site (sky brightness, transparency, seeing and elevation), the detector (pixel pitch, quantum efficiency, read rate and read noise), and the observing program (target brightness, target motion, observing strategy and feature extraction software). In this paper, we design a telescope with wide field of view (≥2.5°×3.5°) and large aperture (1.1m). The focal length of the system is 1.5m, F/# is 1.36. Because of the small Fnumber and wide field of view, we choose the prime focus corrector structure which has single mirrors with refractive prime focus correctors. Moreover, the especial requirements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), spot, energy concentration, and distortion etc. are all satisfied.
A long-wavelength infrared optical system suitable for fast turntables is designed to meet the needs of fast and small target detection and tracking. The optical system consists of a main optical system and a projection lens assembly, it adopts a reflex structure, a secondary imaging technology and a pupil matching technique, reduces the radial size and lateral dimension of the system effectively. The envelope of the shape is within the range of Φ204mm×360mm, compact structure and small volume. Considering that the system's working distance is in the range of 0.2km~1km and the target speed is fast, the object distance has been specially designed to ensure that no focus adjustment is required within the range of action distance. In addition, stray light analysis is performed on the system and a stray light suppression scheme is given. The system is analyzed by stray light analysis software. The design results show that the optical system has excellent imaging quality and stray light suppression effect.
Since the concept of wavefront coding was proposed, many types of phase masks have been reported to extend the depth-of-field of imaging system. Unfortunately there exist some unpleasant image artifacts in the final decoded images, especially for asymmetric phas1 e masks. In this paper, we illustrate a technique that involve shifting a phase mask laterally in pupil plane to introduce axial defocus to an imaging system, which can further be used to determine the defocus map according to the amount of image artifacts. This eventually enables recovery of extended depth-of-filed, artifacts-free decoded images together with a range map. Theoretical analyses and experimental results indicate the effectiveness of this method. Keywords: wavefront coding,
In order to effectively improve the frame of mid-wavelength infrared measuring system, based on a 320×256 cooled staring focal plane array(FPA) detector, pixel size 30μm×30μm, a special optical system combined with time-sharing exposure technology was designed. In this paper, the working wavelength is 3μm~5μm, the temperature range is -30°C~+40°C, this system can realize 200mm focal length, the F-number is 4 and the full field of view is 3.44°. A re-imaging refractive system was adopted in this designed optical system consists of main optics and projection components. First of all, the working principle of the measuring system was introduced in detail. Secondly, on the basis of variety of the distance and temperature, a focusing lens was presented in this system to adjust to produce a clear image. Last but not the least, to improve image quality and environment adaptability, the analysis of temperature change and narcissus effect was described particularly. The design results prove that at the spatial frequency of 17 lp/mm, the MTF of the optical system is greater than 0.58(the axis MTF of the optical is greater than 0.65), the system can offer a high resolution and excellent images. The measuring system implements 400fps measuring system consisting of four 100fps detectors.
A kind of high accuracy Photo-electric auto-collimator based on PSD was designed. The integral structure composed of light source, optical lens group, Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) sensor, and its hardware and software processing system constituted. Telephoto objective optical type is chosen during the designing process, which effectively reduces the length, weight and volume of the optical system, as well as develops simulation-based design and analysis of the auto-collimator optical system. The technical indicators of auto-collimator presented by this paper are: measuring resolution less than 0.05″; a field of view is 2ω=0.4° × 0.4°; measuring range is ±5′; error of whole range measurement is less than 0.2″. Measuring distance is 10m, which are applicable to minor-angle precise measuring environment. Aberration analysis indicates that the MTF close to the diffraction limit, the spot in the spot diagram is much smaller than the Airy disk. The total length of the telephoto lens is only 450mm by the design of the optical machine structure optimization. The autocollimator’s dimension get compact obviously under the condition of the image quality is guaranteed.
Infrared polarization detection technology has unique advantages in the field of target detection and identification because of using the polarization information of radiation. The mechanism of infrared polarization is introduced. Comparing with traditional infrared detection distance model, infrared detection operating range and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) model is built according to the polarization degree and noise. The influence of polarization degree on the SNR of infrared system is analyzed. At last, the basic condition of polarization detection SNR better than traditional infrared detection SNR is obtained.
Based on a 640×512 cooled staring focal plane array (FPA) detector, pixel size 15μm×15μm, a long focal length mid-wavelength infrared optical system was designed. In this paper, the working wavelength is 3μm~5μm, the temperature range is -30°C~+50°C, this system can realize 1000mm focal length, the F-number is 4, the full field of view is 0.70°, satisfy 100% cold shield efficiency. A re-imaging refractive system was adopted in this designed optical system consists of a main objective group and a projection group. First of all, the structural selection and the initial parameter calculation were introduced. Secondly, on the basis of variety of the temperature, a focusing len was presented in this system to adjust to produce a clear image. Last but not the least, to improve image quality and environment adaptability, the analysis of temperature change and ghost image were described particularly. The design results prove that at the spatial frequency of 33 lp/mm, the axis MTF of the optical system is greater than 0.35, the system can offer a high resolution and excellent images, and it has the advantages of good adaptability, simple structure, easy to adjust, and high transmittance.
It has a widely applications in robot vision and 3D measurement for binocular stereoscopic measurement technology. And the measure precision is an very important factor, especially in 3D coordination measurement, high measurement accuracy is more stringent to the distortion of the optical system. In order to improving the measurement accuracy of imaging points, to reducing the distortion of the imaging points, the optical system must be satisfied the requirement of extra low distortion value less than 0.1％, a transmission visible optical lens was design, which has characteristic of telecentric beam path in image space, adopted the imaging model of binocular stereo vision, and imaged the drone at the finity distance. The optical system was adopted complex double Gauss structure, and put the pupil stop on the focal plane of the latter groups, maked the system exit pupil on the infinity distance, and realized telecentric beam path in image space. The system mainly optical parameter as follows: the system spectrum rangement is visible light wave band, the optical effective length is f ’=30mm, the relative aperture is 1/3, and the fields of view is 21°. The final design results show that the RMS value of the spread spots of the optical lens in the maximum fields of view is 2.3μm, which is less than one pixel(3.45μm); the distortion value is less than 0.1%, the system has the advantage of extra low distortion value and avoids the latter image distortion correction; the proposed modulation transfer function of the optical lens is 0.58(@145 lp/mm), the imaging quality of the system is closed to the diffraction limited; the system has simply structure, and can satisfies the requirements of the optical indexes. Ultimately, based on the imaging model of binocular stereo vision was achieved to measuring the drone at the finity distance.
With the increasing demand of the high-resolution remote sensing images by military and civilians, Countries around the world are optimistic about the prospect of higher resolution remote sensing images. Moreover, design a visible/infrared integrative optic system has important value in earth observation. Because visible system can’t identify camouflage and recon at night, so we should associate visible camera with infrared camera. An earth observation optical system with dual spectral and high resolution is designed. The paper mainly researches on the integrative design of visible and infrared optic system, which makes the system lighter and smaller, and achieves one satellite with two uses. The working waveband of the system covers visible, middle infrared (3-5um). Dual waveband clear imaging is achieved with dispersive RC system. The focal length of visible system is 3056mm, F/# is 10.91. And the focal length of middle infrared system is 1120mm, F/# is 4. In order to suppress the middle infrared thermal radiation and stray light, the second imaging system is achieved and the narcissus phenomenon is analyzed. The system characteristic is that the structure is simple. And the especial requirements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), spot, energy concentration, and distortion etc. are all satisfied.
In order to achieve the multi-band and multi-field of view imaging for target and to meet the needs of target detection for large amount of information, a common-aperture visible light/long-wave infrared(VIS/LWIR) imaging optical system with muti-field of view was designed. In this paper, the aperture is 400mm, the working wavelength is 500～700nm and 7.5～10μm, the temperature range is -15℃～+50℃, this system can realize 1500mm and 3000mm dual focal length(VIS), the full field of view of short focal length is 1.16° and long focal length is 0.58° respectively, and realize 1400mm focal length(LWIR) and the full field of view of 0.54°, satisfy 100% cold shield efficiency. A re-imaging system was adopted in this designed optical system consists of main optics, VIS projection components and LMIR projection components. First of all, the structural selection and the initial parameter calculation were introduced in detail. Secondly, to improve image quality and environment adaptability, the analysis of temperature change was described particularly and the structural design requirements were put forward according to the analysis of the data. The design results proved that at the spatial frequency of 50 lp/mm, the axis MTF of the VIS system is greater than 0.48, the MTF of the LWIR system approaches the diffraction limit, the system can offer a high resolution and excellent images in whole range of the focal length, and it has the advantages of good adaptability, compact structure and small size, the results satisfy the design requirement.
Wavefront coding is a technology which combination of the optical design and digital image processing. By inserting a phase mask closed to the pupil plane of the optical system，the wavefront of the system is re-modulated. And the depth of focus is extended consequently. In reality the idea is same as the athermalization theory of infrared optical system. In this paper, an uncooled infrared dual field optical system with effective focal as 38mm/19mm, F number as 1.2 of both focal length, operating wavelength varying from 8μm to 12μm was designed. A cubic phase mask was used at the pupil plane to re-modulate the wavefront. Then the performance of the infrared system was simulated with CODEV as the environment temperature varying from -40℃ to 60℃. MTF curve of the optical system with phase mask are compared with the outcome before using phase mask. The result show that wavefront coding technology can make the system not sensitive to thermal defocus, and then realize the athermal design of the infrared optical system.
Binary optics can be used to increase optical performances, decrease size and weight, and decrease systems costs in numerous applications. By means of hybrid diffractive-refractive, a switch-zoom optical system of catadioptric large aperture ground-based photoelectric detection is designed. The characteristic of the system is that it is a compact optical system without moving parts which can get two focal lengths. And the quality of image approaches the diffraction limited. Ritchey-Chrétien (R-C) mirror and a field lens are common for long-focus system and short-focus system. Two refract groups transmitting optical system are used for zooming. In order to satisfy the demand of energy regulation, it is designed afocal beam between field lens and later refract optical system. Filter and variable density plate are placed in it to guarantee the imaging quality. The focal length is 3750mm and F number is 7.5 for the long-focus system, and the focal length is 1850mm and F number is 3.75 for the short-focus system. Former part and later lens of the system are both perfect imaging. They can be fabricated and detected independently. So the design demand can be satisfied better and the imaging quality can be improved.
As a high-resolution imaging instrument, angular resolution is the most important index of Lyman-α ultraviolet telescope. In this paper a new allocation and budget method is introduced. An resolution error allocation of surface roughness, figure error and alignment error was developed early in the program. And the allocation was used to guide the design. Though testing the surface roughness and figure error in visible light, the variation of diffraction encircled energy can be obtained by non-sequence model and Zernike coefficients brought into optical design software. The numerical results show that the effective RMS surface roughness of primary and secondary mirrors are 0.49nm and 0.40nm in the spatial frequency from 1/D (D is the diameter of the mirror) to 1/λ (λ is an incident wavelength). And the effects of the surface roughness are both less than 0.1″. The figure error of the primary and secondary mirrors are 0.009λ and 0.007λ (Λλ=632.8nm). The resolution errors which were brought by the figure error are 0.33″ and 0.16″. Then the effect of alignment error on angular resolution was gotten by testing visual resolution. Finally the angular resolution in ultraviolet band can be calculated. The focal length of Lyman-α ultraviolet telescope is 2000mm and the pixel size of detector is 14μm. So the pixel resolution is 1.4″. Experimental results show that the angular resolution of Lyman-α ultraviolet telescope is 0.59″, which is approached to the estimate and meet the requirement.
A kind of space target acquisition optical system with small F-number was designed. The system had a working wavelength range of 0.45~0.85μm, an effective focal length of 240 mm, a field of view is 2ω=3°, and an F-Number of F/2. The system characteristic is that the structure is simple. And the especial requirements of the spot, energy concentration, distortion and lateral color etc. are all satisfied. The primary and secondary mirrors are all spheres, so the difficulty and cost of machining are reduced. Moreover, the temperature characteristic of the system is analyzed. The temperature request is satisfied.
According to the large aperture, long focal length zoom system design, the structure of the optical system based on the modular concept is proposed. The structure is constituted of an afocal compression telescope and a zoom system. The parts of each other are individually designed. The aberrations of them are independently. Because of this, the alignment of the system and the difficulty of test are greatly reduced. It is easily replaced by changing the zoom system parts, which can achieve other different focal length and ratio. Using afocal compression telescope greatly reduces the radial aperture of the zoom group, simplifies the system structure and reduces the cost. Meanwhile, the variable stop is placed in the vicinity of the primary mirror. It is instead of the zoom system used in floating variable stop. In addition, the problem about large aperture zoom system pupil matching is solved perfectly. In this article, four methods of pupil matching are given and the advantages and disadvantages of them are analyzed. Using this optical structure, a zoom system is designed, which is working in the visible wavelength band with variable focal length between 900mm and 4500mm, 500mm maximum aperture. The axial dimension of the system is less than 650mm. The maximum diameter of zoom system parts is less than 40 mm. Moreover, the distances of the zoom group and compensating group are all less than 60 mm. Besides, the motion curves of each other are given in the article. The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) values of the system are greater than 0.3 at 48lp/mm across different focal length and field pointing on the axis. The design results show that the imaging quality is excellent, the structure is compact, and the alignment and test are easy. The imaging requirements of zoom system are all satisfied.
In order to effectively improve the target detection and recognition ability of IR imagers, based on a 320×256 cooled staring focal plane array(FPA) detector, pixel size 30μm×30μm, a mid-wavelength infrared dual field of view zoom system was designed. In this paper, the working wavelength is 3μm～5μm, the temperature range is -40°C~+50°C, this system can realize 200mm and 400mm dual focal length, the F-number is 2, the full field of view of short focal length is 3.44° and long focal length is 1.72° respectively, satisfy 100% cold shield efficiency. A re-imaging refractive system was adopted in this designed optical system consists of main optics and projection components. First of all, the structural selection and the initial parameter calculation were introduced in detail. Secondly, on the basis of variety of the distance and temperature, a focusing lens was presented in this system to adjust to produce a clear image. Last but not the least, to improve image quality and environment adaptability, the analysis of temperature change and narcissus effect were described particularly. The design results prove that at the spatial frequency of 17 lp/mm, the MTF of the optical system is greater than 0.5(the axis MTF of the optical is greater than 0.6), the system can offer a high resolution and excellent images in whole range of the focal length, and it has the advantages of good adaptability, compact structure, high optical transmission and small size.
Near-space platform has a high signal contrast and a long detection time. In order to realize effective detection of low altitude penetration target, a middle wave infrared (MWIR) optical system used in near space detection with high optical performance is given. First, the optical system scheme was described. Then on the basis of instrument and system consideration, the optical design parameters were distributed reasonably. The system had an effective focal length of 600 mm, an F-Number of F/4, a field of view of 2ω=1.16°, spatial resolution of 18 lp/mm and a working wavelength range of 3～5μm. The system structure is simple. And the requirements of the spot, energy concentration, distortion are all satisfied. Because the change of environment temperature will deeply influence image quality of MWIR optical system, the temperature characteristic of the system is analyzed. Moreover, first -order ghost and narcissus effect of the system are all analyzed in CODEV software. The analysis results show that temperature, first-order ghost and narcissus effect requests are all satisfied.
A design of a laser communications optical system with high transmitting and receiving performance is given. The traditional on-axis Cassegrain optical antenna has the default that the transmitting and receiving power decreased greatly because of the obscuration of the secondary mirror. Considering that the eccentric-pupil Cassegrain optical antenna is designed. The optical antenna system in transceiver has been designed by means of CODEV software. It improves the efficiency of transmitting and receiving power effectively. Its properties have been analyzed, such as gain, image quality, and transmission efficiency. Meanwhile, the materials of optical elements have been analyzed. The power decline curve has been obtained by means of the detailed analysis of antenna system in partial axis situation. The system includes transmitter channel, receiving channel and experiment channel. It can realize the functions of transmitter-receiver isolation and multi-light ways using dichroic mirrors and beam splitting prisms. The system volume and weight are reduced greatly. The complexity of conventional laser communication system is reduced enormously at the same time. It has important reference significance and application value.
Based on the princip le of the intersection measurement, the mathematical model of measuring the position and dimension of the moving ships was established, and the formu la of the metrical accuracy was deduced. The Matlab software was utilized to simu late and emulate the metrical accuracy, and analysed the primary errors of the system measurement accuracy; the measurement model is validated, co mbined with the examination. The result indicated that the method is feasible which utilized the measurement principle to measure the position and dimension of the moving ships, and establish the basical for further project application.