In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, corrosion of steel rebar introduces internal stress at the interface between rebar and concrete, ultimately leading to debonding and separation between rebar and concrete. Effective early-stage detection of steel rebar corrosion can significantly reduce maintenance costs and enable early-stage repair. In this paper, ultrasonic detection of early-stage steel rebar corrosion inside concrete is numerically investigated using the finite element method (FEM). Commercial FEM software (ABAQUS) was used in all simulation cases. Steel rebar was simplified and modeled by a cylindrical structure. 1MHz ultrasonic elastic waves were generated at the interface between rebar and concrete. Two-dimensional plain strain element was adopted in all FE models. Formation of surface rust in rebar was modeled by changing material properties and expanding element size in order to simulate the rust interface between rebar and concrete and the presence of interfacial stress. Two types of surface rust (corroded regions) were considered. Time domain and frequency domain responses of displacement were studied. From our simulation result, two corrosion indicators, baseline (b) and center frequency (fc) were proposed for detecting and quantifying corrosion.
Steel rebar corrosion reduces the integrity and service life of reinforced concrete (RC) structures and causes their gradual and sudden failures. Early stage detection of steel rebar corrosion can improve the efficiency of routine maintenance and prevent sudden failures from happening. In this paper, detecting the presence of surface rust in steel rebars is investigated by the finite element method (FEM) using surface-generated elastic waves. Simulated wave propagation mimics the sensing scheme of a fiber optic acoustic generator mounted on the surface of steel rebars. Formation of surface rust in steel rebars is modeled by changing material's property at local elements. In this paper, various locations of a fiber optic acoustic transducer and a receiver were considered. Megahertz elastic waves were used and different sizes of surface rust were applied. Transient responses of surface displacement and pressure were studied. It is found that surface rust is most detectable when the rust location is between the transducer and the receiver. Displacement response of intact steel rebar is needed in order to obtain background-subtracted response with a better signal-to-noise ratio. When the size of surface rust increases, reduced amplitude in displacement was obtained by the receiver.
Corrosion of steel reinforcing bars (rebars) is the primary cause for the deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. Traditional corrosion monitoring methods such as half-cell potential and linear polarization resistance can only detect the presence of corrosion but cannot quantify it. This study presents an experimental investigation of quantifying degree of corrosion of steel rebar inside cement mortar specimens using ultrasonic testing (UT). A UT device with two 54 kHz transducers was used to measure ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of cement mortar, uncorroded and corroded reinforced cement mortar specimens, utilizing the direct transmission method. The results obtained from the study show that UPV decreases linearly with increase in degree of corrosion and corrosion-induced cracks (surface cracks). With respect to quantifying the degree of corrosion, a model was developed by simultaneously fitting UPV and surface crack width measurements to a two-parameter linear model. The proposed model can be used for predicting the degree of corrosion of steel rebar embedded in cement mortar under similar conditions used in this study up to 3.03%. Furthermore, the modeling approach can be applied to corroded reinforced concrete specimens with additional modification. The findings from this study show that UT has the potential of quantifying the degree of corrosion inside reinforced cement mortar specimens.
The use of microwave and radar sensors in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of damaged materials and
structures has been proven to be a promising approach. In this paper, a portable imaging radar sensor utilizing
10 GHz central frequency and stripmap synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging was applied to steel and wood
specimens for size and range determination. Relationships between range and properties of SAR images (e.g.
maximum amplitude and total SAR amplitude) were developed and reported for various specimens including a
steel bar (2.5 cm by 2.5 cm by 28.5 cm), a wood bar (2.5 cm by 2.5 cm by 28.5 cm), a steel plate (39.7 cm by
57.9 cm by 1.75 cm), and a wood board (30.5 cm by 30.5 cm by 1.8 cm). Various ranges from 30 cm to 100 cm
were used on these specimens. In our experiment, attenuation of radar signals collected by the imaging radar
system on different material specimens was measured and modeled. Change in the attenuation of maximum SAR
amplitude was observed in different materials. It is found that SAR images can be used to distinguish materials
of different compositions and sizes.
Fiber optic acoustic generators have generated a lot of interest due to its great potential in many applications including nondestructive tests. This paper reports four acoustic generation configurations. All the configurations are based on gold nanoparticles/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites. Since gold nanoparticles have high absorption efficiency to optical energy and PDMS has a high coefficient of thermal expansion, the composites can transfer optical energy to ultrasonic waves with high conversion efficiency. The strength and bandwidth of ultrasonic waves generated by the composites can be changed by different designs and structures of the composites. This paper explores the relation between the structure of fiber optic acoustic generators and the profile of generated ultrasonic waves. Experimental results also demonstrated that four ultrasonic generation configurations have similar features of ultrasonic transmission on a steel plate, which is important for future choices of ultrasonic receivers.
Failures of aging light poles can jeopardize the safety of residents and damage adjacent structures. The need for reliable and efficient damage detection methods is raised. Any change in structural properties (e.g., mass, stiffness and damping) can lead to differences in the dynamic response of structures (i.e., modal frequencies). As a result, changes in dynamic responses can be used as indicators for damage detection. In this study, relationships between artificial damages and modal frequencies are determined by investigating the modal frequencies of intact and damaged light pole models using the finite element method (FEM). Finite element (FE) models were built with 5,529 C3D8R elements in ABAQUSR. New parameters (sensitive and insensitive modes) were defined and used to evaluate the sensitivity of the first ten modes of FE models. It is found that combinations of sensitive and insensitive modes are unique for each damage location and can be used to locate artificial damages in light pole models. Empirical equations are proposed to quantify damage level and damage size.