An automatic large-scale 3D coordinate measurement system based on vision guidance is presented. With a high-accuracy total station accomplishing the basic coordinate measurement, a camera mounted on the total station is used to scan the measuring field. The camera can identify the target in the viewing field and provide its azimuth information for the total station to aim at it automatically. Thus high-accuracy non-contact measurement can be accomplished without additional effort for targeting. The results showed that the measurement system can realize automatic large-scale measurement precisely and efficiently which provides an efficient approach for solving automatic large-scale measurement problems.