Ternary lipid bilayer systems assembled from mixtures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and cholesterol have been studied using coarse-grained molecular dynamics at biologically relevant temperatures (280 K to 310 K), which are between the chain melting temperatures of the pure lipid component. Free lipid bilayers were simulated using the MARTINI model (Stage I) and a variant with water-water interactions reduced to 76% (Stage II). The latter was subsequently used for preparing supported lipid bilayer simulations (Stage III). Clustering of like lipids was observed, but the simulation timescale did not yield larger phaseseparated domains.
Macroscopic porous membranes with pore diameter uniformity approaching the nanometer scale have great potential to significantly increase the speed, selectivity, and efficiency of molecular separations. We present fabrication, characterization, and molecular transport evaluation of nanoporous thin silicon-based sieves created by laser interferometric lithography (LIL). This fabrication approach is ideally suited for the integration of nanostructured pore arrays into larger microfluidic processing systems, using a simple all-silicon lithographic process. Submilli-meter-scale planar arrays of uniform cylindrical and pyramidal nanopores are created in silicon nitride and silicon, respectively, with average pore diameters below 250 nm and significantly smaller standard error than commercial polycarbonate track etched (PCTE) membranes. Molecular transport properties of short cylindrical pores fabricated by LIL are compared to those of thicker commercial PCTE membranes for the first time. A 10-fold increase in pyridine pore flux is achieved with thin membranes relative to commercial sieves, without any modification of the membrane surface.