Laser-produced plasmas are intense sources of XUV radiation that can be suitable for different applications such as extreme ultraviolet lithography, beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography and water window imaging. In particular, much work has focused on the use of tin plasmas for extreme ultraviolet lithography at 13.5 nm. We have investigated the spectral behavior of the laser produced plasmas formed on closely packed polystyrene microspheres and porous alumina targets covered by a thin tin layer in the spectral region from 2.5 to 16 nm. Nd:YAG lasers delivering pulses of 170 ps (Ekspla SL312P )and 7 ns (Continuum Surelite) duration were focused onto the nanostructured targets coated with tin. The intensity dependence of the recorded spectra was studied; the conversion efficiency (CE) of laser energy into the emission in the 13.5 nm spectral region was estimated. We have observed an increase in CE using high intensity 170 ps Nd:YAG laser pulses as compared with a 7 ns pulse.
This paper describes the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray emission recorded in the 2-12 nm region from Mo, Ru, Rh and Pd ions present in the laser produced plasmas. The spectra were found to be dominated by 3p-3d transitions in the 5-8 nm region, which shift slowly to shorter wavelengths with the increasing atomic number, and by 3d-4p and 3d-4f transitions at shorter wavelengths. These transitions, in a number of neighbouring ion stages, were distinguished by comparison with Cowan code calculations and previously reported data. The experimental results show that strong emission can be observed at the 6.X nm region for Ru, Rh and Pd plasmas.
EUV photoresists are considered as a potential source of optics contamination, since they introduce irradiation induced outgassing in the EUV vacuum environment. Therefore, before these resists can be used on e.g. ASML NXE:3100 or NXE:3300, they need to be tested in dedicated equipment according to a well-defined procedure, which is based on exposing a witness sample (WS) in the vicinity of a simultaneously exposed resist as it outgasses. Such an outgassing test infrastructure is available at many sites, but exposure modes on the witness sample and wafer can be significantly different, which potentially could lead to different test results. In this investigation, we first explored in more detail the relationship between resist outgassing as measured by RGA (Residual Gas Analysis) and the carbon growth obtained in the WS test. A good correlation was found by using a timeintegrated and mass-weighted sum of the RGA-measured mass peaks. Next, the impact of the resist exposure mode on the WS contamination result was investigated at imec, where the outgas test setup allows to expose the wafer with EUV irradiation as well as electrons in the same vacuum environment. It was found that minor differences observed in the WS test results, can be explained by adequate characterization of exposure intensity distribution and dose control. Finally the WS test results at imec from the different exposure modes were compared to the test results at NIST. The small differences in contamination that were observed could be explained by differences in test procedure, by using the time dependent RGA approach. From the combined work on outgassing measurements and WS contamination testing we have significantly improved our understanding of the relationship between outgassing and contamination processes induced by EUV photons and electrons. We have also demonstrated how to compare results obtained at different outgas testing sites, which is important in quantifying the potential risk to EUV device manufacturing posed by resist outgassing.