In this paper, Single-Target-Oriented (STO) Binary Sensor Sets (BSSs) are introduced and analyzed for C3I applications. These STO BSSs are diversified multisensors (combining IR camera, LIDAR, radar, etc.) standardized into the Binary Sensor format. By increasing the k-number of Binary Sensors within the STO paradigm, we can increase target detection predictability, thus, increasing Bayesian inference strength.
In this paper we discuss relations between Bayesian Truthing (experimental validation), Bayesian statistics, and Binary Sensing in the context of selected Homeland Security and Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) optical and nonoptical application scenarios. The basic Figure of Merit (FoM) is Positive Predictive Value (PPV), as well as false positives and false negatives. By using these simple binary statistics, we can analyze, classify, and evaluate a broad variety of events including: ISR; natural disasters; QC; and terrorism-related, GIS-related, law enforcement-related, and other C3I events.
With his exceptional scientific expertise, Professor John Caulfield was involved at Physical Optics Corporation (POC) from its inception (1985) to the present. This paper reviews his recent involvement at POC, which includes both optical and less well known nonoptical scientific and engineering areas.
Proc. SPIE. 8711, Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense XII
KEYWORDS: Signal to noise ratio, Unmanned aerial vehicles, Data modeling, Sensors, Magnetism, Interference (communication), Navigation systems, Magnetic sensors, Signal detection, Environmental sensing
Autonomous navigation around power lines in a complex urban environment is a critical challenge facing small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs). As part of an ongoing development of an electric and magnetic field sensor system designed to provide SUAVs with the capability to sense and avoid power transmission and distribution lines by monitoring their electric and magnetic field signatures, we have performed field measurements and analysis of power-line signals. We discuss the nature of the power line signatures to be detected, and optimal strategies for detecting these signals amid SUAV platform noise and environmental interference. Based on an analysis of measured power line signals and vehicle noise, we have found that, under certain circumstances, power line harmonics can be detected at greater range than the fundamental. We explain this phenomenon by combining a model of power line signal nonlinearity with the quasi-static electric and magnetic signatures of multiphase power lines.
Renewable energy is an important source of power for unattended sensors (ground, sea, air), tagging systems, and other
remote platforms for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense. Also, Command, Control, Communication, and
Intelligence (C3I) systems and technologies often require renewable energy sources for information assurance (IA), in
general, and anti-tampering (AT), in particular. However, various geophysical and environmental conditions determine
different types of energy harvesting: solar, thermal, vibration, acoustic, hydraulic, wind, and others. Among them, solar
energy is usually preferable, but, both a solar habitat and the necessity for night operation can create a need for other
types of renewable energy. In this paper, we introduce figures of merit (FoMs) for evaluating preferences of specific
energy sources, as resource management tools, based on geophysical conditions. Also, Battery Systemic Modeling is
A new intelligent mechanism is presented to protect networks against the new generation of cyber attacks. This
mechanism integrates TCP/UDP/IP protocol stack protection and attacker/intruder deception to eliminate existing
TCP/UDP/IP protocol stack vulnerabilities. It allows to detect currently undetectable, highly distributed, low-frequency
attacks such as distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, coordinated attacks, botnet, and stealth network
reconnaissance. The mechanism also allows insulating attacker/intruder from the network and redirecting the attack to a
simulated network acting as a decoy. As a result, network security personnel gain sufficient time to defend the network
and collect the attack information. The presented approach can be incorporated into wireless or wired networks that
require protection against known and the new generation of cyber attacks.
A novel photonic magnetometer for a variety of applications is being developed. The detection mechanism is similar to
existing fiber optic magnetometers, in which a magnetostrictive element transduces magnetic field variations into
changes in optical path length, subsequently detected through optical interferometry. Single-axis and three-axis vector
magnetometers have been designed, and other application-specific configurations have also been investigated.
The sensor noise floor is estimated at 20 pT/√Hz for frequencies of 0.1 Hz and above, with a dynamic range of over
100,000 nT. The sensor can be compact (down to 1 cm<sup>3</sup>) and can consume less than 100 milliwatts of power. These
features, combined with its low 1/f noise and wide dynamic range, make the photonic magnetometer an easily
deployable detector of low-frequency magnetic fields. Potential applications of the novel photonic magnetometer,
including space-based measurement of geomagnetic fields, medical biomagnetic imaging, vehicle detection, mine
detection, heading sensors, low-frequency communications, and deep eddy current nondestructive evaluation, have
been explored as well.
A novel technology that significantly enhances security and trust in wireless and wired communication networks has
been developed. It is based on integration of a novel encryption mechanism and novel data packet structure with
enhanced security tools. This novel data packet structure results in an unprecedented level of security and trust, while at
the same time reducing power consumption and computing/communication overhead in networks. As a result, networks
are provided with protection against intrusion, exploitation, and cyber attacks and posses self-building, self-awareness,
self-configuring, self-healing, and self-protecting intelligence.
In this paper, Bayesian inference is applied to performance metrics definition of the important class of recent Homeland
Security and defense systems called binary sensors, including both (internal) system performance and (external)
CONOPS. The medical analogy is used to define the PPV (Positive Predictive Value), the basic Bayesian metrics
parameter of the binary sensors. Also, Small System Integration (SSI) is discussed in the context of recent Homeland
Security and defense applications, emphasizing a highly multi-technological approach, within the broad range of clusters
("nexus") of electronics, optics, X-ray physics, γ-ray physics, and other disciplines.
The photometric modeling of LEDs as generalized Lambertian sources (GL-Sources) is discussed. Non-Lambertian
LED sources, with axial symmetry, have important real-world applications in general lighting. In particular, so-called
generalized Lambertian sources, following a cosine to the nth power distribution (n≥1), can be used to describe the
luminous output profiles from solid-state lighting devices like LEDs. For such sources, the knowledge of total power (in
Lumens [Lms]), the knowledge of the output angular characteristics, as well as source area, is sufficient information to
determine all other critical photometric quantities such as: maximum radiant intensity (in Candelas [Cd = Lm/Sr]) and
maximum luminance (in nits [nts = Cd/m<sup>2</sup>]), as well as illuminance (in lux [lx = Lm/m<sup>2</sup>]). In this paper, we analyze this
approach to modeling LEDs in terms of its applicability to real sources.
An inexpensive, easily integrated, sensitive photoreceiver operating in the communications band with a 50-GHz
bandwidth would revolutionize the free-space communication industry. While generation of 50-GHz carrier AM or FM
signals is not difficult, its reception and heterodyning require specific, known technologies, generally based on silicon
semiconductors. We present a 50 GHz photoreceiver that exceeds the capabilities of current devices. The proposed
photoreceiver is based on a technology we call Nanodust. This new technology enables nano-optical photodetectors to
be directly embedded in silicon matrices, or into CMOS reception/heterodyning circuits. Photoreceivers based on
Nanodust technology can be designed to operate in any spectral region, the most important to date being the
telecommunications band near 1.55 micrometers. Unlike current photodetectors that operate in this spectral region,
Nanodust photodetectors can be directly integrated with standard CMOS and silicon-based circuitry. Nanodust
technology lends itself well to normal-incidence signal reception, significantly increasing the reception area without
compromising the bandwidth. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated a free-space responsivity of 50 &mgr;A/(W/cm<sup>2</sup>),
nearly an order of magnitude greater than that offered by current 50-GHz detectors. We expect to increase the Nanodust
responsivity significantly in upcoming experiments.
In this paper, the foundations of radiometry and photometry, based on Second Principle of Thermodynamics are
discussed, in terms of brightness (luminance), and etendue (Lagrange invariant) limitations of integrated lighting
systems. In such a case, the brightness is defined as phase-space-density, and other radiometric/photometric quantities
such as emittance, exitance, or irradiance/illuminance, power/flux, and radiant/luminant intensity, are also discussed,
including examples of integrated lighting systems. Also, technologic progress at Luminit is reviewed, including 3D-microreplication
of new non-diffuser microscopic structures by roll-to-roll web technology.
Automatic target recognition (ATR) can be accomplished by many methods, including recognition of vibrometric
signatures. In many cases, ATR is enhanced by photorefractive amplification, a two-wave mixing effect in which two
input beams form a dynamic holographic grating. One of the two beams (the pump) diffracts from that grating into the
other (the signal), assuming the characteristics of the signal. When the pump is much stronger than the signal, the
diffracted pump becomes a highly amplified signal beam. Traditionally, however, the frequency at which this
amplification can be applied is limited to <1/2πτ<sub>0</sub>, where τ<sub>0</sub> is the decay time of the grating in the absence of a pump or
signal. We demonstrate that the amplification has no such limit in the case of vibrometry, which measures
frequency-modulated, rather than amplitude-modulated, signals. This is shown by constant photorefractive amplification
at frequencies up to >700 kHz in Cu:KNSBN, which has τ<sub>0</sub> >100 ms (corresponding to a maximum amplification
frequency of 1.6 Hz).
An inexpensive, easily integrated, 40 Gbps photoreceiver operating in the communications band would revolutionize the telecommunications industry. While generation of 40 Gbps data is not difficult, its reception and decoding require specific technologies. We present a 40 Gbps photoreceiver that exceeds the capabilities of current devices. This photoreceiver is based on a technology we call "nanodust." This new technology enables nanoscale photodetectors to be embedded in matrices made from a different semiconductor, or directly integrated into a CMOS amplification circuit. Photoreceivers based on quantum dust technology can be designed to operate in any spectral region, including the telecommunications bands near 1.31 and 1.55 micrometers. This technology also lends itself to normal-incidence detection, enabling a large detector size with its associated increase in sensitivity, even at high speeds and reception wavelengths beyond the capability of silicon.
True 3D displays, whether generated by volume holography, merged stereopsis (requiring glasses), or autostereoscopic methods (stereopsis without the need for special glasses), are useful in a great number of applications, ranging from training through product visualization to computer gaming. Holography provides an excellent 3D image but cannot yet be produced in real time, merged stereopsis results in accommodation-convergence conflict (where distance cues generated by the 3D appearance of the image conflict with those obtained from the angular position of the eyes) and lacks parallax cues, and autostereoscopy produces a 3D image visible only from a small region of space. Physical Optics Corporation is developing the next step in real-time 3D displays, the automultiscopic system, which eliminates accommodation-convergence conflict, produces 3D imagery from any position around the display, and includes true image parallax. Theory of automultiscopic display systems is presented, together with results from our prototype display, which produces 3D video imagery with full parallax cues from any viewing direction.
Head-mounted or helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) have long proven invaluable for many military applications. Integrated with head position, orientation, and/or eye-tracking sensors, HMDs can be powerful tools for training. For such training applications as flight simulation, HMDs need to be lightweight and compact with good center-of-gravity characteristics, and must display realistic full-color imagery with eye-limited resolution and large field-of-view (FOV) so that the pilot sees a truly realistic out-the-window scene. Under bright illumination, the resolution of the eye is ~300 μr (1 arc-min), setting the minimum HMD resolution. There are several methods of achieving this resolution, including increasing the number of individual pixels on a CRT or LCD display, thereby increasing the size, weight, and complexity of the HMD; dithering the image to provide an apparent resolution increase at the cost of reduced frame rate; and tiling normal resolution subimages into a single, larger high-resolution image. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) is developing a 5120 × 4096 pixel HMD covering 1500 × 1200 mr with resolution of 300 μr by tiling 20 subimages, each of which has a resolution of 1024 × 1024 pixels, in a 5 × 4 array. We present theory and results of our preliminary development of this HMD, resulting in a 4k × 1k image tiled from 16 subimages, each with resolution 512 × 512, in an 8 × 2 array.
Advances in the development of imaging sensors depend upon (among other things) the testing capabilities of research laboratories. Sensors and sensor suites need to be rigorously tested under laboratory and field conditions before being put to use. Real-time dynamic simulation of real targets is a key component of such testing, as actual full-scale tests with real targets are extremely expensive and time consuming and are not suitable for early stages of development. Dynamic projectors simulate tactical images and scenes. Several technologies exist for projecting IR and visible scenes to simulate tactical battlefield patterns - large format resistor arrays, liquid crystal light valves, Eidophor type projecting systems, and micromirror arrays, for example. These technologies are slow, or are restricted either in the modulator array size or in spectral bandwidth. In addition, many operate only in specific bandwidth regions. Physical Optics Corporation is developing an alternative to current scene projectors. This projector is designed to operate over the visible, near-IR, MWIR, and LWIR spectra simultaneously, from 300 nm to 20 μm. The resolution is 2 megapixels, and the designed frame rate is 120 Hz (40 Hz in color). To ensure high-resolution visible imagery and pixel-to-pixel apparent temperature difference of 100°C, the contrast between adjacent pixels is >100:1 in the visible to near-IR, MWIR, and LWIR. This scene projector is designed to produce a flickerless analog signal, suitable for staring and scanning arrays, and to be capable of operation in a hardware-in-the-loop test system. Tests performed on an initial prototype demonstrated contrast of 250:1 in the visible with non-optimized hardware.
Bidirectional (mutual) injection locking was demonstrated with solid-state lasers, producing significant improvements over traditional single-direction injection locking. Each laser element shares part of its output with other elements in bidirectional locking, distinct from single-direction (traditional) injection locking where one master laser provides the locking signal for a number of slaves. In a phase-locked array, the individual laser outputs add coherently, and the brightness of the entire array scales with the square of the number of elements, as if the active material diameter were increasing. Benefits of bidirectional locking, when compared to traditional injection locking, include reduced laser threshold, better output beam quality, and improved scaling capability. Experiments using two Nd:YVO4 lasers confirmed that mutual injection locking reduced lasing threshold by a factor of at least two and increased the output beam quality significantly. The injection locking effects began with 0.03% coupling between lasers and full-phase locking for coupling exceeding 0.5%. The 0.5% requirement for full phase-locking limits traditional injection-locked arrays to fewer than 100 elements, while mutually injection-locked arrays have no such limit. Mutual injection locking of an array of lasers can lead to a new architecture for high-power laser systems.
Conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques include visual inspection, eddy current scanning, ultrasonics, and fluorescent dye penetration. These techniques are limited to local evaluation, often miss small buried defects, and are useful only on polished surfaces. Advanced NDE techniques include laser ultrasonics, holographic interferometry, structural integrity monitoring, shearography, and thermography. A variation of shearography, employing reflective shearographic interferometry, has been developed. This new shearographic interferometer is discussed, together with models to optimize its performance and experiments demonstrating its use in NDE.
The most accurate method of measuring distance and motion is interferometry. This method of motion measurement correlates change in distance to change in phase of an optical signal. As one mirror in the interferometer moves, the resulting phase variation is visualized as motion of interferometric fringes. While traditional optical interferometry can easily be used to measure distance variation as small as 10 nm, it is not a viable method for measuring distance to, or motion of, an object located at a distance grater than half the coherence length of the illumination source. This typically limits interferometry to measurements of objects within <1 km of the interferometer. We present a new interferometer based on phase conjugation, which greatly increases the maximum distance between the illumination laser and the movable target. This method is as accurate as traditional interferometry, but is less sensitive to laser pointing error and operates over a longer path. Experiments demonstrated measurement accuracy of <15 nm with a laser-target separation of 50 times the laser coherence length.