Biomechanical breast models have been employed for applications in image registration and analysis, breast augmentation simulation, and for surgical and biopsy guidance. Accurate applications of stress-strain relationships of tissue within the breast can improve the accuracy of biomechanical models that attempt to simulate breast movements. Reported stiffness values for adipose, glandular, and cancerous tissue types vary greatly. Variations in reported stiffness properties are mainly due to differences in testing methodologies and assumptions, measurement errors, and natural inter patient differences in tissue elasticity. Therefore, patient specific, in vivo determination of breast tissue properties is ideal for these procedural applications. Many in vivo elastography methods are not quantitative and/or do not measure material properties under deformation conditions that are representative of the procedure being simulated in the model. In this study, we developed an elasticity estimation method that is performed using deformations representative of supine therapeutic procedures. Reconstruction of material properties was performed by iteratively fitting two anatomical images before and after tissue stimulation. The method proposed is work flow friendly, quantitative, and uses a non-contact, gravity-induced deformation source. We tested this material property optimization procedure in a healthy volunteer and in simulation. In simulation, we show that the algorithm can reconstruct properties with errors below 1% for adipose and 5.6% for glandular tissue regardless of the starting stiffness values used as initial guesses. In clinical data, reconstruction errors are higher (3.6% and 24.2%) due to increased noise in the system. In a clinical context, the elastography method was shown to be promising for use in biomechanical model assisted supine procedures.
The fidelity of image-guided neurosurgical procedures is often compromised due to the mechanical deformations that occur during surgery. In recent work, a framework was developed to predict the extent of this brain shift in brain-tumor resection procedures. The approach uses preoperatively determined surgical variables to predict brain shift and then subsequently corrects the patient’s preoperative image volume to more closely match the intraoperative state of the patient’s brain. However, a clinical workflow difficulty with the execution of this framework is the preoperative acquisition of surgical variables. To simplify and expedite this process, an Android, Java-based application was developed for tablets to provide neurosurgeons with the ability to manipulate three-dimensional models of the patient’s neuroanatomy and determine an expected head orientation, craniotomy size and location, and trajectory to be taken into the tumor. These variables can then be exported for use as inputs to the biomechanical model associated with the correction framework. A multisurgeon, multicase mock trial was conducted to compare the accuracy of the virtual plan to that of a mock physical surgery. It was concluded that the Android application was an accurate, efficient, and timely method for planning surgical variables.
Brain shift compensation using computer modeling strategies is an important research area in the field of image-guided neurosurgery (IGNS). One important source of available sparse data during surgery to drive these frameworks is deformation tracking of the visible cortical surface. Possible methods to measure intra-operative cortical displacement include laser range scanners (LRS), which typically complicate the clinical workflow, and reconstruction of cortical surfaces from stereo pairs acquired with the operating microscopes. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a craniotomy simulation device that permits simulating realistic cortical displacements designed to measure and validate the proposed intra-operative cortical shift measurement systems. The device permits 3D deformations of a mock cortical surface which consists of a membrane made of a Dragon Skin® high performance silicone rubber on which vascular patterns are drawn. We then use this device to validate our stereo pair-based surface reconstruction system by comparing landmark positions and displacements measured with our systems to those positions and displacements as measured by a stylus tracked by a commercial optical system. Our results show a 1mm average difference in localization error and a 1.2mm average difference in displacement measurement. These results suggest that our stereo-pair technique is accurate enough for estimating intra-operative displacements in near real-time without affecting the surgical workflow.
Brain shift describes the deformation that the brain undergoes from mechanical and physiological effects typically during a neurosurgical or neurointerventional procedure. With respect to image guidance techniques, brain shift has been shown to compromise the fidelity of these approaches. In recent work, a computational pipeline has been developed to predict “brain shift” based on preoperatively determined surgical variables (such as head orientation), and subsequently correct preoperative images to more closely match the intraoperative state of the brain. However, a clinical workflow difficulty in the execution of this pipeline has been acquiring the surgical variables by the neurosurgeon prior to surgery. In order to simplify and expedite this process, an Android, Java-based application designed for tablets was developed to provide the neurosurgeon with the ability to orient 3D computer graphic models of the patient’s head, determine expected location and size of the craniotomy, and provide the trajectory into the tumor. These variables are exported for use as inputs for the biomechanical models of the preoperative computing phase for the brain shift correction pipeline. The accuracy of the application’s exported data was determined by comparing it to data acquired from the physical execution of the surgeon’s plan on a phantom head. Results indicated good overlap of craniotomy predictions, craniotomy centroid locations, and estimates of patient’s head orientation with respect to gravity. However, improvements in the app interface and mock surgical setup are needed to minimize error.
The purpose of this work is to develop an anatomically and mechanically representative breast phantom for the validation of breast conserving surgical therapies, specifically, in this case, image guided surgeries. Using three patients scheduled for lumpectomy and four healthy volunteers in mock surgical presentations, the magnitude, direction, and location of breast deformations was analyzed. A phantom setup was then designed to approximate such deformations in a mock surgical environment. Specifically, commercially available and custom-built polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) phantoms were used to mimic breast tissue during surgery. A custom designed deformation apparatus was then created to reproduce deformations seen in typical clinical setups of the pre- and intra-operative breast geometry. Quantitative analysis of the human subjects yielded a positive correlation between breast volume and amount of breast deformation. Phantom results reflected similar behavior with the custom-built PVA phantom outperforming the commercial phantom.
Laparoscopic liver resection is increasingly being performed with results comparable to open cases while incurring less
trauma and reducing recovery time. The tradeoff is increased difficulty due to limited visibility and restricted freedom of
movement. Image-guided surgical navigation systems have the potential to help localize anatomical features to improve
procedural safety and achieve better surgical resection outcome. Previous research has demonstrated that intraoperative
surface data can be used to drive a finite element tissue mechanics organ model such that high resolution preoperative
scans are registered and visualized in the context of the current surgical pose. In this paper we present an investigation of
using sparse data as imposed by laparoscopic limitations to drive a registration model. Non-contact laparoscopicallyacquired
surface swabbing and mock-ultrasound subsurface data were used within the context of a nonrigid registration
methodology to align mock deformed intraoperative surface data to the corresponding preoperative liver model as
derived from pre-operative image segmentations. The mock testing setup to validate the potential of this approach used a
tissue-mimicking liver phantom with a realistic abdomen-port patient configuration. Experimental results demonstrates a
range of target registration errors (TRE) on the order of 5mm were achieving using only surface swab data, while use of
only subsurface data yielded errors on the order of 6mm. Registrations using a combination of both datasets achieved
TRE on the order of 2.5mm and represent a sizeable improvement over either dataset alone.
Breast conservation therapy (BCT) is a desirable option for many women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer and involves a lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy. However, approximately 50% of eligible women will elect for mastectomy over BCT despite equal survival benefit (provided margins of excised tissue are cancer free) due to uncertainty in outcome with regards to complete excision of cancerous cells, risk of local recurrence, and cosmesis. Determining surgical margins intraoperatively is difficult and achieving negative margins is not as robust as it needs to be, resulting in high re-operation rates and often mastectomy. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) can provide detailed information about tumor margin extents, however diagnostic images are acquired in a fundamentally different patient presentation than that used in surgery. Therefore, the high quality diagnostic MRIs taken in the prone position with pendant breast are not optimal for use in surgical planning/guidance due to the drastic shape change between preoperative images and the common supine surgical position. This work proposes to investigate the value of supine MRI in an effort to localize tumors intraoperatively using image-guidance. Mock intraoperative setups (realistic patient positioning in non-sterile environment) and preoperative imaging data were collected from a patient scheduled for a lumpectomy. The mock intraoperative data included a tracked laser range scan of the patient's breast surface, tracked center points of MR visible fiducials on the patient's breast, and tracked B-mode ultrasound and strain images. The preoperative data included a supine MRI with visible fiducial markers. Fiducial markers localized in the MRI were rigidly registered to their mock intraoperative counterparts using an optically tracked stylus. The root mean square (RMS) fiducial registration error using the tracked markers was 3.4mm. Following registration, the average closest point distance between the MR generated surface nodes and the LRS point cloud was 1.76±0.502 mm.