This work addresses image degradation introduced by lossy compression techniques and the effects of such degradation on signal detection statistics for applications in fast-framing (<100 Hz) IR image analysis. As future space systems make use of increasingly higher pixel count IR focal plane arrays, data generation rates are anticipated to become too copious for continuous download. The prevailing solution to this issue has been to compress image data prior to downlink. While this solution is application independent for lossless compression, the expected benefits of lossy compression, including higher compression ratio, necessitate several application specific trades in order to characterize preservation of critical information within the data. Current analyses via standard statistical image processing techniques following tunably lossy compression algorithms (JPEG2000, JPEG-LS) allow for detection statistics nearly identical to analyses following standard lossless compression techniques, such as Rice and PNG, even at degradation levels offering a greater than twofold increase in compression ratio. Ongoing efforts focus on repeating the analysis for other tunably lossy compression techniques while also assessing the relative computational burden of each algorithm. Current results suggest that lossy compression techniques can preserve critical information in fast-framing IR data while either significantly reducing downlink bandwidth requirements or significantly increasing the usable focal plane array window size.
Jet engine noise can be a health hazard and environmental pollutant, particularly affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines, such as airline mechanics. Mitigating noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers; however, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels, and understanding and characterizing this relationship is a key step in mitigating jet engine noise effects. We demonstrate initial results highlighting the utility of high-speed imaging (hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet engines with acoustic noise. This paper builds on prior theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures and their potential relationships to jet engine acoustic emissions. This previous work identified the region of the jet plume most likely to emit both in infrared and in acoustic domains, and it prompted the investigation of wave packets as a physical construct tying together acoustic and infrared energy emissions. As a means of verifying these assertions, a field campaign to collect relevant data was proposed, and data collection was carried out with a bank of infrared instruments imaging a T700 turboshaft engine undergoing routine operational testing. The detection of hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines enables the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to socioeconomic benefits for airlines and other operators of large numbers of jet engines.
We have performed research to understand the feasibility of using signals received by EOIR sensors to detect small vibrations in surfaces illuminated by sunlight. The vibration models consider buildings with vibrating roofs, as well as ground vibrations due to buried structures. For the surface buildings, we investigated two approaches. One involved treating the roof as an elastic medium subject to deformation resulting in a PDE whose solution describes the fluctuation in the surface’s normal direction vector. The second approach treated the roof as a rigid mass subject to motion in six degrees of freedom, while modeling the dynamics of the building’s frame, and tuning the parameters to result in resonant frequencies similar to real buildings (~3-7 Hz). We applied the appropriate physical models of reflected and scattered light to various surfaces, specular (insulator or conductor), rough but still reflective, or diffusely scattering (Lambertian). Matlab code was developed to perform numerical simulations of any system configuration described above and easily add new models. The main engine of the code is a signal calculator and analyzer that sums the total intensity of received light over a “scene” with a variety of surface materials, orientations, polarization (if any), and other parameters. A resulting signal versus time is generated that may be analyzed in order to: 1) optimize sensitivity, or 2) detect the vibration signature of a structure of interest. The results of this study will enable scientists/engineers to optimize signal detection, possibly from space, for passive exploitation of scattered light modulated by vibrating surfaces.
Jet engine noise can be a hazard and environmental pollutant, affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines. Mitigating the effects of jet engine noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers, but engine noise is not yet sufficiently well-characterized that it can easily be mitigated for new engine designs. That is, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the utility of high-speed imaging (also called hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet aircraft engines with acoustic noise from the jet engines. This paper will focus on a theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures, and will define potentially-detectable characteristics of such signatures in the hypertemporal domain. A systematic test campaign to determine whether such signatures actually exist and can be correlated with acoustic jet engine characteristics will be proposed. The detection of any hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines will enable the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to benefits for operators of large numbers of jet engines.
Third harmonic (TH) microscopy with circularly polarized illumination directly reveals material anisotropy owing to suppression of background optical signals from isotropic media. Because optical thin films and their substrates are expected to be highly isotropic, TH microscopy presents a path to study induced and intrinsic anisotropy in films, providing both insight into laser-induced material modification that precedes damage and feedback about the deposition process. Because nanoscale defects and material strain influence the damage behavior of films, we examined TH sensitivity to similar sources of contrast. We demonstrate imaging of individual 10 nm colloidal gold nanoparticles and 100 mN nanoindentations in fused silica both with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) ≥ 100∶1. We present TH images (SNR ≥ 210∶1) of sites exposed to femtosecond laser pulses below damage in 100 nm HfO2 films that are barely visible (SNR ≤ 2.3∶1) with Nomarski and polarization imaging, traditional microscopic techniques known to display contrast for material anisotropy. At our detection limit (320 mW, 50 fs, 790 nm, ≈ 106 photomultiplier tube gain), we examined root mean square in the TH image of nascent films that correlated to the film's macrostrain. TH microscopy presents a relatively simple all-optical method to monitor nanoscale anisotropy in thin films during exposure to high-intensity radiation and during deposition.
Experimental and theoretical progress on subpicosecond laser pulse breakdown in dielectric films is reviewed. The
single pulse threshold fluences can be related to fundamental material properties and scaling laws with respect to pulse
duration and material bandgap. Multiple pulse thresholds are controlled by native and laser-induced defects. A
phenomenological model is introduced which describes the accumulation and relaxation of such defects. The model is
able to explain the experiments and can be used to assess relevant defect parameters. Experimental results are presented
that exemplify how the ambient atmosphere affects the multiple-pulse laser damage thresholds.
Third harmonic (TH) imaging is inherently suited for optical material characterization. Under linearly polarized
illumination the total TH signal is dominated by the signal resulting from material interfaces. For symmetry reasons,
circularly polarized illumination of a medium with isotropic or cubic symmetry yields zero TH, and prevailing signals
originate from localized anisotropic sample sites. Such anisotropy may result from laser induced stress, crystallinity, or
birefringence. Pairing THG with complementary imaging techniques proves to be a useful diagnostic for investigating
additional material characteristics. We report TH imaging of 10 nm colloidal gold nanoparticles, 100 mN
nanoindentations, nascent film anisotropy, and laser induced material modification of HfO<sub>2</sub> films both pre- and post-laser