We present a water-proof Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based scanning optical resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy (OR-PAM) system and its application in glioma tumor mouse model study. The presented OR-PAM system has high optical resolution (~3 μm) and high scanning speed (up to 50 kHz A-scan rate), which is ideal for cerebral vascular imaging. In this study, the mice with glioma tumor are treated with vascular disrupting agent (VDA). OR-PAM system is utilized to image the cerebral with the whole skull intact before and after the injection of VDA. By image registration, the response of every single blood vessel can be traced. This will provide us deeper understanding of the drug effect.
A focused-scanning photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is available to help advancing life science research in neuroscience, cell biology, and in vivo imaging. At this early stage, the only one manufacturer of PAM systems, MicroPhotoAcoustics (MPA; Ronkonkoma, NY), MPA has developed a commercial PAM system with switchable optical and acoustic resolution (OR- and AR-PAM), using multiple patents licensed from the lab of Lihong Wang, who pioneered photoacoustics. The system includes different excitation sources. Two kilohertz-tunable, Q-switched, Diode Pumped Solid-State (DPSS) lasers offering a up to 30kHz pulse repetition rate and 9 ns pulse duration with 532 and 559 nm to achieve functional photoacoustic tomography for sO2 (oxygen saturation of hemoglobin) imaging in OR-PAM. A Ti:sapphire laser from 700 to 900 nm to achieve deep-tissue imaging. OR-PAM provides up to 1 mm penetration depth and 5 μm lateral resolution. while AR-PAM offers up to 3 mm imaging depth and 45 μm lateral resolution. The scanning step sizes for OR- and AR-PAM are 0.625 and 6.25 μm, respectively. Researchers have used the system for a range of applications, including preclinical neural imaging; imaging of cell nuclei in intestine, ear, and leg; and preclinical human imaging of finger cuticle. With the continuation of new technological advancements and discoveries, MPA plans to further advance PAM to achieve faster imaging speed, higher spatial resolution at deeper tissue layer, and address a broader range of biomedical applications.
Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is an emerging noninvasive technique that probes the deep tissue blood flow, by using the time-averaged intensity autocorrelation function of the fluctuating diffuse reflectance signal. We present a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based software autocorrelator that utilizes the graphical programming language LabVIEW (National Instruments) to complete data acquisition, recording, and processing tasks. The validation and evaluation experiments were conducted on an in-house flow phantom, human forearm, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) on mouse tumors under the acquisition rate of ∼400 kHz . The software autocorrelator in general has certain advantages, such as flexibility in raw photon count data preprocessing and low cost. In addition to that, our FFT-based software autocorrelator offers smoother starting and ending plateaus when compared to a hardware correlator, which could directly benefit the fitting results without too much sacrifice in speed. We show that the blood flow index (BFI) obtained by using a software autocorrelator exhibits better linear behavior in a phantom control experiment when compared to a hardware one. The results indicate that an FFT-based software autocorrelator can be an alternative solution to the conventional hardware ones in DCS systems with considerable benefits.