The Internet has witnessed an explosive increase in the popularity of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) file-sharing applications during the past few years. As these applications become more popular, it becomes increasingly important to characterize their behavior in order to improve their performance and quantify their impact on the network. In this paper, we present a measurement study on characteristics of available files in the modern Gnutella system. We developed a new methodology to capture accurate "snapshots" of available files in a large scale P2P system. This methodology was implemented in a parallel crawler that captures the entire overlay topology of the system where each peer in the overlay is annotated with its available files. We have captured tens of snapshots of the Gnutella system and conducted three types of analysis on available files: (i) Static analysis, (ii) Topological analysis and (iii) Dynamic analysis. Our results reveal several interesting properties of available files in Gnutella that can be leveraged to improve the design and evaluations of P2P file-sharing applications.
This paper presents design and evaluation of an adaptive streaming mechanism from multiple senders to a single receiver in Peer-to-Peer
(P2P) networks, called P2P Adaptive Layered Streaming, or PALS. PALS is a receiver-driven mechanism. It enables a receiver peer to orchestrate quality adaptive streaming of a single, layer encoded video stream from multiple congestion controlled senders, and is able to support a spectrum of non-interactive streaming applications. The primary challenge in design of a multi-source streaming mechanism is that available bandwidth from each peer is not known a priori, and could significantly change during a session. In PALS, the receiver periodically performs quality adaptation based on aggregate bandwidth from all senders to determine (i) overall quality (i.e. number of layers) that can be collectively delivered from all senders, and more importantly (ii) specific subset of packets that should be delivered by each sender in order to gracefully cope with any sudden change in its bandwidth. Our detailed simulation-based evaluations illustrate that PALS can effectively cope with several angles of dynamics in the system including: bandwidth variations, peer participation, and partially available content at different peers. We also demonstrate the importance of coordination among senders and examine key design tradeoffs for the PALS mechanism.
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