In this paper the authors present a monolithic Photonic Integrated Circuit which includes a transmitter and a receiver for NG-PON2. With this layout it is possible to build an OLT and, by redesigning some filters, also an ONU. This technology allows reducing the losses in the transmitter and in the receiver, increasing power budget, and also reducing the OEO conversions, which has been a major problem that operators want to surpass.
A system using laser speckle effect is proposed to segment images reflecting vibration movements of di use targets. Longitudinal movements are difficult to identify when simple imaging systems are used. The proposed system produces a two dimensional segmentation of the target and it is sensitive to longitudinal movements. The speckle effect, produced when coherent light is reflected and interferes when hitting rough surfaces, can be used in order to accomplish this purpose. A pattern with high and low intensity spots is observed depending on the illuminated scene. In our optical system, two silicone membranes are illuminated using a beam expanded laser source and their patterns are recorded using a video camera. One of the membranes experiences a longitudinal controlled movement while the remaining scene is still. Speckle data is processed using a temporal gradient and a regional entropy computation. This method produces a binary individual pixel classification. Four sets of parameters have been tested for the entropy computation and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to select the best one. The selected set-up achieved a ROC value of 0.9879. A data set with 12 different membrane velocities was used to define the threshold that maximizes the classifier accuracy. This threshold was applied to a validation data-set composed by 4 sinusoidal movements with distinct velocities. The accuracy of this technique has achieved values between 92% and 97%. The results show that the target was accurately identified with the optical non-contact apparatus and the developed algorithm.
In this paper, the implementations of clock and carrier recovery in digital domain are analyzed. Hardware implementation details, resources estimation and real-time results are presented. Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC), operating at 1.25Gsa/s, and a Virtex-6 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), have been used, allowing the implementation of a real-time Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) system operating at 1.25Gb/s. The real-time mode operation is successfully demonstrated over 80 km of Standard Single Mode Fiber (SSMF).
We experimentally demonstrate a set of ultra-high capacity free space passive optical networks (PONs) using quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) Nyquist pulse shaped and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulations. Moreover, these technologies support up to 10 Gb/s services per user and allow a smooth and full integration between fiber and optical wireless access networks.
A refractive index and viscosity sensor based on FBGs in mPOF is reported for the first time. The refractive index was measured with a sensitivity of -10:98nm=RIU and a resolution of 1 – 10-4RIU. Viscosity measurements were performed with acousto-optic modulation, obtaining a sensitivity of -94:42%=mPa • s and a resolution of 0:06mPa • s.
In this work, the study of a particular step of Madeira’s winemaking process called <i>estufagem</i> with a plastic optical fibre sensor is presented. Madeira wine is a type of fortified wine produced in the Madeira island of Portugal. The characteristic aroma and exceptional stability of these wines result from the singular used winemaking method that consists in the <i>estufagem</i> where the wine is heated up to 55 °C for at least 3 months, among other steps. This heating based process can produce significant changes in wine colour, aroma and taste. By measuring the transmitted optical power through the wine in three different cells at three different wavelengths it is possible to monitor wine colour evolution during the <i>estufagem</i>. The plastic optical fibres offer easy non-skilled handling, ruggedness and low cost, overcoming the difficulties of the electronic and conventional systems and improving the time of the laboratory offline methods. Results show that it is possible to distinguish the different Madeira wines (from sweet to dry wines) obtained based on different wine grapes as well as the colour evolution during the diverse months of the <i>estufagem</i>.
The present work addresses the need for new devices felt in the context of quality control, especially in the food industry. Due to the spectral dependence of the attenuation coefficient, a novel dual-parameter sensor for colour and refractive index was developed and tested. The sensor employs plastic optical fibres to measure the transmitted optical power in three measurement cells each with a different incident wavelength. The performance of the sensor was tested using several dyes at different concentrations and aqueous solutions of glycerine and ethanol. Results show that this technique allows the monitoring of refractive index and colour without cross-sensitivity.