We theoretically investigate the fluorescence enhancement of a representative set of dye-molecules excited by three classes of nanoantennae, using a fully vectorial three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) method. Through these 3D FDTD calculations, in conjunction with analytic guidance using temporal coupled-mode (TCM) theory, we develop a design procedure for antennae assemblies that allow achieving fluorescence enhancements of 200-900 over the emission intensity in the bare dye molecule. The enhancement from these commercially available fluorochrome conjugates, namely, <i>CF</i><sup>TM</sup>568, <i>CF</i><sup>TM</sup>660R and <i>CF</i><sup>TM</sup>790 are fully investigated using spherical-dimer, elliptical-dimer, and bowtie nanoantennae. These results demonstrate a method for rationally designing arbitrary metallic nanoparticle/emitter assemblies prior to their synthesis and assembly to achieve optimum fluorescence enhancement.
We demonstrate enhanced conversion efficiency (CE) and parametric amplification of optical pulses via quasiphase- matched four-wave-mixing (FWM) in long-period Bragg waveguides made of silicon. Our study is based on a rigorous theoretical model that describes optical pulse dynamics in a periodically, adiabatically modulated silicon photonic waveguide and a comprehensive set of numerical simulations of pulse interaction in such gratings. More specifically, our theoretical model takes into account all of the relevant linear and nonlinear optical effects, including free-carriers generation, two-photon absorption, and self-phase modulation, as well as modal frequency dispersion up to the fourth-order. Due to its relevance to practical applications, a key issue investigated in our work is the dependence of the efficiency of the FWM process on the waveguide parameters and the operating wavelength. In particular, our analysis suggests that by varying the waveguide width by just a few tens of nanometers the wavelengths of the phase-matched waves can be shifted by hundreds of nanometers. Our numerical simulations show also that, in the anomalous group-velocity dispersion regime, a CE enhancement of more than 20 dB, as compared to the case of a waveguide with constant width, can be easily achieved.
We present a comprehensive study of generation and collision of optical similaritons in sub-micron silicon photonic wire waveguides. Our analysis of optical pulse dynamics in such wave guiding devices is based on a rigorous theoretical model that incorporates all of the relevant linear and nonlinear optical effects, including modal dispersion, free-carrier dispersion and absorption, self-phase modulation, two-photon absorption, frequency dispersion of the optical nonlinearity, and the free-carrier dynamics. In addition to the particular characteristics of the generation of optical similaritons in silicon photonic wires, we also investigate the dependence of the efficiency of this optical process on the physical parameters and temporal profile of the input pulse. The collision of optical similaritons that propagate both in the normal and anomalous dispersion regime is also analyzed. Guided by the target applications of our study, we considered two technologically relevant spectral regions, namely, telecom and mid-IR frequency domains.