A new computationally efficient framework for vehicle tracking on a mobile platform is proposed. The principal component of the framework is the log-polar transformation applied to video frames captured from a standard uniformly sampled format camera. The log-polar transformation provides two major benefits to real-time vehicle tracking from a mobile vehicle platform moving along a single or multi-lane road. First, it significantly reduces the amount of data required to be processed since it collapses the original Cartesian video frames into log-polar images with much smaller dimensions. Second, the log-polar transformation is capable of mitigating perspective distortion due to its scale invariance property. This second aspect is of interest for vehicle tracking because the target vehicle appearance is preserved for all distances from the observer (camera). This works however only if the center of log-polar transformation is coincident with the vanishing point of perspective view. Therefore, a road following algorithm is proposed to keep the center of log-polar transform on the vanishing point at every video frame compensating for the carrying vehicle movements. Since the algorithm is intended to be used in the mobile embedded devices, it is developed to achieve both mathematical simplicity and algorithmic efficiency while avoiding computationally expensive mathematical functions. The use of trigonometric and exponential functions is minimized comparing to the log-Hough transform traditionally used in log-polar space. This new algorithm focuses on straight radial line fragments, thus shifting its mathematical engine to the linear equations' domain.
The present work addresses the design of an image acquisition front-end for target detection and tracking within a wide range of distances. Inspired by raptor bird's vision, a novel design for a visual sensor is proposed. The sensor consists of two parts, each originating from the studies of biological vision systems of different species. The front end is comprised of a set of video cameras imitating a falconiform eye, in particular its optics and retina . The back end is a software remapper that uses a popular in machine vision log-polar model of retino-cortical projection in primates , , . The output of this sensor is a composite log-polar image incorporating both near and far visual fields into a single homogeneous image space. In such space it is easier to perform target detection and tracking for those applications that deal with targets moving along the camera axis. The target object preserves its shape and size being handled seamlessly between cameras regardless of distance to the composite sensor. The prototype of proposed composite sensor has been created and is used as a front-end in experimental mobile vehicle detection and tracking system. Its has been tested inside a driving simulator and results are presented.
First responders to a major incident include many different agencies. These may include law enforcement officers, multiple fire departments, paramedics, HAZMAT response teams, and possibly even federal personnel such as FBI and FEMA. Often times multiple jurisdictions respond to the incident which causes interoperability issues with respect to communication and dissemination of time critical information. Accurate information from all responding sources needs to be rapidly collected and made available to the current on site responders as well as the follow-on responders who may just be arriving on scene. The creation of a common central database with a simple easy to use interface that is dynamically updated in real time would allow prompt and efficient information distribution between different jurisdictions. Such a system is paramount to the success of any response to a major incident. First responders typically arrive in mobile vehicles that are equipped with communications equipment. Although the first responders may make reports back to their specific home based command centers, the details of those reports are not typically available to other first responders who are not a part of that agencies infrastructure. Furthermore, the collection of information often occurs outside of the first responder vehicle and the details of the scene are normally either radioed from the field or written down and then disseminated after significant delay. Since first responders are not usually on the same communications channels, and the fact that there is normally a considerable amount of confusion during the first few hours on scene, it would be beneficial if there were a centralized location for the repository of time critical information which could be accessed by all the first responders in a common fashion without having to redesign or add significantly to each first responders hardware/software systems. Each first responder would then be able to provide information regarding their particular situation and such information could be accessed by all responding personnel. This will require the transmission of information provided by the first responder to a common central database system. In order to fully investigate the use of technology, it is advantageous to build a test bed in order to evaluate the proper hardware/software necessary, and explore the envisioned scenarios of operation before deployment of an actual system. This paper describes an ongoing effort at the University of New Hampshire to address these emergency responder needs.
This paper describes the results of a collaborative effort between the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and the Mitretek Systems (MTS) Center for Criminal Justice Technology (CCJT). Mitretek conducted an investigation into the impact of anticipated biometrically encoded driver licenses (DLs) on law enforcement. As part of this activity, Mitretek teamed with UNH to leverage the results of UNH's Project54 and develop a pilot Driver License Interoperability Test Bed to explore both implementation and operational aspects associated with reading and authenticating biometrically encoded DLs in law enforcement scenarios. The test bed enables the exploration of new methods, techniques (both hardware and software), and standards in a structured fashion. Spearheaded by the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and the International Committee for Information Technology Standards Technical Group M1 (INCITS-M1) initiatives, standards involving both DLs and biometrics, respectively, are evolving at a rapid pace. In order to ensure that the proposed standards will provide for interstate interoperability and proper functionality for the law enforcement community, it is critical to investigate the implementation and deployment issues surrounding biometrically encoded DLs. The test bed described in this paper addresses this and will provide valuable feedback to the standards organizations, the states, and law enforcement officials with respect to implementation and functional issues that are exposed through exploration of actual test systems. The knowledge gained was incorporated into a report prepared by MTS to describe the anticipated impact of biometrically encoded DLs on law enforcement practice.
This paper describes the prototype design of a real time color image compression board. The hardware implements image compression as defined by the Joint Photographic Experts Group commonly referred to as the JPEG standard. The architecture and supported image compression modes are described. The design utilizes LSI Logic's JPEG chipset and additional supporting hardware and resides on a 6U VME ProtoMax II prototyping board from Datacube. The design conforms to Datacube's MAXbus specification and can be run at full RS-170 frame rates. Data is input to the board in a 10 MHz pixel stream and emerges from the board at 10 MHz in a compressed format with appropriate byte stuffing and image marker codes. Future directions for supporting MPEG are discussed.
In image compression for subsequent transmission over a data channel it is often desirable to discard nonessential information before further coding for compression is performed. In this paper polarlog coordinate mapping is used to reduce the input image in a way that preserves high resolution in the field of interest while collapsing information at the field periphery. This reduced image is then compressed by using runlength encoding thus allowing the compressed data to be transmitted over a narrower bandwidth channel. Simulation results for compression using polarlog as a preprocessing stage are presented. Other possible preprocessing stages as well as compression stages are also discussed.
This paper describes an ongoing effort to produce hardware that can perform arbitrary two dimensional image warping at a cost that is reasonable. This paper describes hardware that has been developed for the VNE bus. The hardware has been specifically designed to operate with the DATACUBE family of image processing boards. Following the description of this hardware is discussion on specific application research currently utilizing this technology. I.