Stack Array Mirrors (SAM) technology offers high order correction, with up to several thousands of actuators, controllable at high frequency, up to several kHz. A new generation of piezo-electric actuators with high reliability has been developed during the last years. This technology is well-adapted for large deformable mirrors (DMs) with thousands of actuators for future needs for Extremely Large Telescopes. We present the design and the modelling of the two large DMs for NFIRAOS, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT): DM0 which shows 3125 actuators and DM11 which shows 4548 actuators. A DM prototype with 616 actuators has been manufactured to validate the manufacturing steps and the specifications of the future large DMs, including their behavior at both ambient and low temperature (-30°C). The prototype includes the new generation of piezo actuators with improved reliability thanks to an optimization of the fabrication processes. Experimental results of accelerated ageing tests and mechanical fatigue are presented. After complete assembly, the prototype is qualified in a specific cool chamber with interferometric measurements. The results are the following: operational stroke higher than 10 μm PV at both ambient and -30°C with uniformity better than 5%, overall non-linearity lower than 5%, resonance frequency of the actuators higher than 10 kHz. Based on the measurements done on the overall temperature range (+20°C to -30°C), the best flat is lower than the goal specification of 10 nm RMS mechanical. An enhanced protected silver coating done by magnetron sputtering allows a high level of reflectivity especially in the near infrared range and long-life durability.
We present recent developments on deformable mirrors (DM) for astronomy with ground-based telescopes. A new generation of actuators with high reliability and high performances has been developed for Stack Array Mirrors. These actuators are suitable for a large range of DMs, including future needs for Extremely Large Telescopes. Design and modelling of large DMs for Thirty Meter Telescope and European Extremely Large Telescope are presented. The Monomorph mirrors combines simplicity and efficiency to correct the wavefront deformation. Astronomical telescopes can benefit of the developments performed on this Monomorph technology for high power laser chains and for spaceborn instrumentation.
We present recent experimental results obtained with CILAS deformable mirrors (DMs) or demonstration prototypes in solar and night-time astronomy (with ground-based telescopes) as well as observation of the Earth (with space telescopes). These important results have been reached thanks to CILAS technology range composed of monomorph and piezostack deformable mirrors, drivers and optical coatings. For instance, the monomorph technology, due to a simple architecture can offer a very good reliability for space applications. It can be used for closed or open loop correction of the primary mirror deformation (thermal and polishing aberrations, absence of gravity). It can also allow a real-time correction of wavefront aberrations introduced by the atmosphere up to relatively high spatial and temporal frequencies for ground-based telescopes. The piezostack technology is useful for very high order correction at high frequency and under relatively low operational temperature (down to -30°C), which is required for future Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). This wide range of applications is exposed through recent examples of DMs performances in operation and results obtained with breadboards, allowing promising DMs for future needs.
In this paper, we provide an overview of the adaptive optics (AO) program for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project, including an update on requirements; the philosophical approach to developing an overall AO system architecture; the recently completed conceptual designs for facility and instrument AO systems; anticipated first light capabilities and upgrade options; and the hardware, software, and controls interfaces with the remainder of the observatory. Supporting work in AO component development, lab and field tests, and simulation and analysis is also discussed. Further detail on all of these subjects may be found in additional papers in this conference.