We investigate the beam divergence in far-field region, diffraction loss and optical confinement factors of all-semiconductor
and void-semiconductor photonic-crystal surface-emitting lasers (PCSELs), containing either
InGaP/GaAs or InGaP/air photonic crystals using a three-dimensional FDTD model. We explore the impact
of changing the PC hole shape, size, and lattice structure in addition to the choice of all-semiconductor or
void-semiconductor designs. We discuss the determination of the threshold gain from the diffraction losses,
and explore limitations to direct modulation of the PCSEL.
980 nm GaAs-based photonic crystal surface emitting lasers containing all semiconductor GaAs/InGaP and GaAs/air photonic crystals (PC) inside their cavity are theoretically investigated. We use a combination of an average index approach and optical coupled mode theory to optimize the PC interaction with optical modes of the laser waveguide and draw guidelines for design of PCSELs based on a range of material systems and operating wavelengths. Results show that the all-semiconductor PC provides a higher coupling with the optical mode in most cases.
Recently, there has been much interest in a novel type of device, the 2D photonic crystal surface emitting laser (PCSEL).
For commercialization of these devices a robust and high reliability manufacturing method is required. Previous GaAs
wafer fusion and GaN regrowth techniques have utilised voids within the photonic crystal which suffer from reliability
and reproducibility issues. We demonstrate a GaAs based PCSEL structure which uses epitaxial regrowth to completely
infill the etched structure. We discuss the design, epitaxy, and operating characteristics of these devices over a range of