Second harmonic generation (SHG) is a ubiquitous technique for extending the spectral coverage of laser sources into regions that would otherwise be technologically challenging to access. SHG schemes typically rely on the use of bulk optical components, resulting in systems with large footprints requiring precise optical alignment. Integration of the SHG components into a single unit facilitates the implementation of compact, robust and turn-key sources, suitable for applications in biophotonic imaging, amongst others. We report on the development of fiber-coupled frequency doubling modules and their application to novel fiberintegrated picosecond pulse sources in the visible and near-visible. The modules employ a simple, single-pass configuration using a periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal as the nonlinear conversion medium. They are readily adaptable for different fiber pump laser configurations and are configurable with either fiber-coupled or collimated free-space outputs. Two sources using the modules are presented, operating at 780 nm and 560 nm. The 780 nm source utilizes an erbium master oscillator power fiber amplifier (MOPFA) scheme. SHG was performed in a 35 mm long crystal, generating 3.5 W of 780 nm radiation with a pulse duration of 410 ps at 50 MHz and conversion efficiencies exceeding 20%. Results of this source being used for parametric wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fiber are discussed. The 560 nm source was based on SHG of a Raman amplified CW diode pumped by a pulsed ytterbium-fiber MOPFA. This source generated 450 mW of average power with conversion efficiencies greater than 20%.