This paper presents the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from three different plants with numerous pharmacological benefits: Elderflower (<i>Sambucus nigra </i>L.), Acacia (<i>Robinia pseudacacia</i> L.) and Cornflower (<i>Centaurea cyanus</i>) and also describes the chemical synthesis of two phthalocyanine derivatives: tetracarboxamido-zinc phthalocyanine ZnPc(CONH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>4</sub> and octacarboxamido–zinc phthalocyanine ZnPc(CONH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>8</sub>, their physical – chemical characterization (e.g.: UV-Vis, FTIR) and the quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation. All the aqueous extracts are characterized by means of qualitative (e.g.: saponins, steroids, terpenoids, antraquinones, cardiac and anthraquinone glycosides, etc.) and quantitative (e.g.: total content of flavonoids, total content of terpenoids, total content of polyphenols, etc.) phytochemical screening using standard analytical methods and the results clearly show the presence of different bioactive compounds that play a key role in the reduction of metal ions to nanoparticles. Antioxidant activity of both aqueous extracts and metalic nanoparticles is measured and the formation of both metalic nanoparticles is confirmed by optical microscopy (OM) images. The easiest way to observe the formation of AgNPs and AuNPs is the visual change in color of the plant extract solutions which is then confirmed by recording the UV-Vis spectra. Biosynthesized silver and gold nanoparticles are compared to those obtained by classic chemical synthesis. AgNPs and AuNPs further react, for 96 hours and under constant stirring at room temperature, with the two Pcs to obtain complex nanoaggregate materials whose potential formation is analyzed by means of spectroscopic investigations (e.g.: UV-Vis, FTIR, DLS).
Knowledge of the chemical composition of the building materials of the monuments may help us to preserve and protect them from the pollution of our cities. The aim of this work is to characterize the materials of the walls from ancient buildings, the decay products that could be appear due to the action of pollution and a new method based on nanomaterials (hydroxyapatite -HAp) for a conservative preservation of the treated walls. Some analytical techniques have been used, as follow: X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF) (for the relative abundance of major, minor and trace elements), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy (for stratigraphic study of cross-sections of multi-layered materials found in wall paintings), Optical microscopy (OM), (for morphology of the wall samples). The nanomaterial suspension HAp applied on the sample surface by spraying, decreased the capillary water uptake, do not modify significantly the color of the samples and induced a reduced mass loss for the treated samples.
Azobenzene derivatives constitute a group of dyes which have photochromic properties and have been investigated as promising systems for diverse applications in the unconventional optic area, their properties can be moulded with help of light.
Metalloporphyrins have relatively high thermal stability, which makes them attractive candidates for high
temperature catalytic process . Thermogravimetry (TGA) have been used to examin the thermochemistry, to study the
thermal stability and thermal decomposition of the new complexes of porphyrins. The composition of these compounds were determined from the TGA curves. A systematic study of the stability of tetra-p-phenyl-porphyrin (TPP) and its metallic complexes with [Ni(II), Co(II), Mg(II), Ti(IV), W(VI) and VO(IV)] through thermogravimetry (TGA/DTG) has
been carried out. Metal complexes derived from porphyrins are fairly stable to thermal and oxidative decomposition, and parameters of that process depend on the number of axial ligands. The central metal ions have some marked influence on the thermal stability of the compounds . All these compounds are stable up to the temperature range 400-600 <sup>0</sup>C and decompose in an almost single major stage, which is used for kinetic parameters evaluation. In certain cases, a second minor decomposition stage is obtained.
When speaking of sensitive artifacts, control of the environmental conditions seems to be the best means of protecting theme. In theory, for a well preserved and uninfected artifact the best way to prevent fungal growth is to protect surfaces from contamination, control moisture and relative humidity (RH). For already biodeteriorated or fungus-infected artifacts, several methods, such as vacuum cleaning, freezing, heat treatment, chemicals, altered atmospheric gases or radiation, could be used. Realistically speaking, these methods often cannot be applied for some disadvantage of their use or because their high cost. This is why the aim of our research is to propose alternative chemical methods, based on natural extracts and/or synthetic chemical compounds for the removal of fungus from affected artifacts. To obtain remediation of the biodeterioration of the artifacts, we used mixtures of hydroxyapatite and alkali-metals hydroxides dispersed in isopropyl alcohol. An example of the treatment effectiveness is presented, using a selected recipe. Also, natural extracts were evaluated for their use in the bioremediation of the artifacts.
In this paper, tin 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-phenyl porphyrin (Cl<sub>2</sub>Sn-TPP) encapsulated in a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) and in synthetic zeolites (X-71, HZSM-5) were synthesized (by direct adsorption into the matrix cavities) and characterized by TGA/DSC, UV-Vis and FTIR techniques; subsequently, they have been tested as catalysts in the hydrogen peroxide decomposition reaction. UV-Vis and FTIR techniques put into evidence the highest adsorbtion rate of the metalloporphyrin on clinoptilolite. The thermal analysis of these materials explained their thermal behaviour, as a useful criterion for their application as catalysts in reactions that involve high temperatures, showing that the porphyrin – zeolite materials are resistant to high temperatures. Regarding the use of these materials in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, the best activity was encountered in the case of SnCl<sub>2</sub> – TPP/clinoptilolite when compared with the free zeolites.
Nanomaterials as novel materials with nanometer sizes are involved in higher performance technology. On
this context nanobiotechnology is able to create different nanostructures using living organisms.An attractive
research area is the application of microorganisms to synthesize nanoparticles from different metals, one of
which is silver, an antimicrobial agent. Green production methods have a considerable interest for
environmental protection, often based on plant extracts, organic compounds or microorganisms (bacteria, fungi,
algae). Marine plants were used as "real factors" for synthesis of nanoparticles of Au and Ag using different
processes of biomineralization. This paper deals with a complete study about obtaining silver nanoparticles from
AgNO<sub>3</sub> using red algae (<i>Porphyridium purpureum</i>). The red algae contain the red pigment-phycobilins,
responsible for red color and for the strong absorption in visible spectrum. The properties and structure of silver
nanoparticles have been put into evidence by means of: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-FTIR, optical
microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-EDXRF.
The nanoengineering of various materials for biomedical application has became in the last decade one of the
most important research areas, due to the continuous struggle to find new and more efficient instruments for the therapy
of cancer and other diseases. Attempts to obtain functionalized derivatives of fullerene seek the synthesis of watersoluble
materials, in order to investigate their effects in physiological conditions. International studies on the biological
properties of fullerenes and their derivatives, are now targeted towards anti-tumor effects, pharmacology and their
involvement in oxidative stress. Their toxicity, demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo is important for characterization
and selection of applications. Phototoxicity of some molecules of fullerenes has been identified as future therapeutic tool.
The present paper describes the synthesis, characterization and some biomedical applications of some nanomaterials
based on fullerenes.
In the last decade, on the world wide it has been started to be applied the conservation of cultural heritage with
nanomaterials. A deep investigation about the degradation mechanism of cultural heritage means the decisive step in the
historical paper conservation.
In particular, by using these compatible methods, it is possible to perform interventions without modification of
the physicochemical and mechanical behavior of the materials, ensuring long-lasting effects.
In this study alkaline nano-sized particles have been synthesized, as non-aqueous dispersions, because of their
efficiency for the preservation of cellulose-based materials.
The particles size and theirs size distribution have been measured by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS)
The historical papers have been treated with the obtained nanoparticles and then the initial and treated book
papers have been examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
The preservation of the cultural heritage is important for all countries, as this is a reminder of what they were once, being
the most important element of identity in these modern days. The different directions and ways in which these processes
are realized depend on the particular stage of development of science and technology, welfare of society, and
encountered dangers of this identity. Very important objects of cultural heritage are material objects and objects of art
produced by all communities. The study of nanostructured materials is considered an emerging field for the next years.
To advance the field of preservation of cultural heritage science and nanostructured materials there is a continuous
interdisciplinary collaboration between material science specialists and preservationists. In this work we present a
complex study on the synthesis and the application of nanomaterials for the restoration and conservation of different
The action of detergents is thought to be connected primarily with micelle formation. However, detergent monomers can
also affect biological systems. It was found that human red blood cells can be disintegrated with Triton X-100 non-ionic
detergent at a concentration of 0.007%, lower than the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The lytic membrane of
non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 (as a model), and its ability to lyse red blood cells <i>in vitro </i>used as an indicator of
conjugate conformation at different pHs. The time dependent release of hemoglobin (Hb) and potassium from red blood
cells was detected at 37 °C and both were sigmoid in character. Although Triton X-100 was highly lytic at pH 5.5, 7.4
and 8.0, the conjugate only show a lysis concentration-dependent of red blood cell at pH 5.5. Triton X-100 causes the Hb
to aggregate, a condition that can be simulated when this non-ionic surfactant is incubated with Hb <i>in vitro</i>.
The determination of Triton-X was done by HPLC, in accordance to characterize the surfactant. The increased stability
in micellar medium can be attributed to deep penetration with the polar group -OH oriented towarded to the micelle
surface. Thermal stability of hemoglobin has been investigated in order to evaluate the nature of thermal behavior of this
compound. We studied the effects of surfactant Triton -X on the rate constants for the destroying of hemoglobin.
This work tries to optimize the conditions for chemical synthesis of nanosized magnetic iron oxide
powders with desired biological properties. It was obtained iron oxides by sonochemical method, favoring the
synthesis at low-temperature, low costs, high material purity and nanostructure control. For biomedical
applications like magnetic biofunctional material vectors to target tissues, the iron oxide particles obtained have
to be spherical with 10 nm average diameter. The influences of Fe ions concentration on the shape, size and size
distribution of the obtained nanoparticles it is important for synthesis of nanoparticles used in medical
application because it is necessary to have small size distribution and similar shapes. The paper it compares the
size variation for five different concentrations. Some investigation techniques as: Fourier transformed infrared
spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), termogravimetric analysis (TGA), magnetization analysis, has
Nanomedicine is defined as the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the
molecular level using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures.
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution containing the iron oxide precursor iron (III) was electrospun and thermally treated
to produce electrically conducting, magnetic carbon nanofiber mats with hierarchical pore structures. This paper
discusses the synthesis of magnetite (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>) nanoparticles with mean crystallite size of 10 nm with polyacrylonitrile
(PAN) as the protecting agent, creating nanofiber.
The morphology and material properties of the resulting multifunctional nanofiber including the surface area were
examined using various characterization techniques. Optical microscopy images show that uniform fibers were
produced with a fiber diameter of ~600 nm, and this uniform fiber morphology is maintained after graphitization
with a fiber diameter of ~330 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies reveal the size of Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> crystals. A combination
of XRD and electron microscopy experiments reveals the formation of pores with graphitic nanoparticles in the walls
as well as the formation of magnetite nanoparticles distributed throughout the fibers.
Some pophyrins as molecular materials are discussed in this paper. Aggregates of these molecules have been
known for some time to possess interesting properties. Their optical properties as isolated species in condensed phases
have also recently become interesting, and their ability to form new hybrid materials, by mixing them with themselves or
other molecules with different electron affinities and ionization potentials, now appears to be extremely attractive. Few
porphyrin structures, 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-phenyl-porphyrin (TPP), 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-methoxy-phenyl-porphyrin
(TMOPP), 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-tolyl-porphyrin (TTP), 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-sulphonato-phenyl-porphyrin (TSPP), have been
synthesized in this paper. Some analytical investigations as UV-Vis spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), Fourier transformed
infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been discussed as purity and stability criteria. Also,
some considerations about their aggregation ability are discussed, and not in the last time, their capacity to generate
It is well-known that hydroxyapatite have multiple applications in tissue engineering due to compositional similarities with
bone tissue. In this work, hydroxyapatite powders obtained by modified chemical precipitation route, has been investigated by
AMF and SEM analysis grain size, X-ray diffraction and infra-red spectroscopy. The particle size of hydroxyapatite was
observed to be very fine, uniform, around 50 -60 nm.
SEM observation of the HA coatings showed the presence of nano-sized needles, with a significant level of agglomeration.
The infrared analysis show the characteristic peaks of absorbed water, hydroxyl, phosphate and carbonate species. The XRD
pattern clearly indicated the crystallites responsible for the Bragg reflection of the (002) and (003) planes are useful for size
determination by Sherrer relationship (around 68 nm).
Plasmons are resonant modes that involve the interaction between free charges and light. Nanoparticle-based photonic explorers have been developed for photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT has been widely used in both oncological (e.g., tumors) and nononcological (e.g., age-related macular degeneration, localized infection, and nonmalignant skin conditions) applications. Three primary components are involved in PDT: light, a photosensitizing drug, and oxygen. The photosensitizer adsorbs light energy, which it then transfers to molecular oxygen to create an activated form of oxygen called singlet oxygen. The singlet oxygen is a cytotoxic agent and reacts rapidly with cellular components to cause damage that ultimately leads to cell death and tumor destruction. The changed topography of the film surface after deposition is caused by a local material transport and a material separation between formed particles (probably AgNO<sub>3</sub>) and an embedding polymer matrix as chitosan. This paper focuses on the current use of injectable in situ Au/(Ag)/chitosan hydrogels in cancer photodynamic treatment. Formulation protocols for their cytotoxic properties, their effect on cell growth in vitro and inhibition of tumor growth in vivo using mouse models, are discussed.
Nanotechnology is the manufacture and science of materials with at least one dimension in the nanometer scale . Many nanomaterials have novel chemical and biological properties and most of them are not naturally occurring. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an example of a carbon-based nanomaterial which has won enormous popularity in nanotechnology for its unique properties and applications .
CNTs have highly desirable physicochemical properties for use in commercial, environmental and medical sectors. The inclusion of CNTs to improve the quality and performance of many widely used products, as well as potentially in medicine, will dramatically affect occupational and public exposure to CNT based nanomaterials in the near future .
This paper proposes to explore the pattern of lymphoblastic cell line K562 cells death, the effects on their cell cycle
induced by 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-sulphonato-phenyl-porphyrin-based photodynamic therapy (TS<sub>4</sub>PP-PDT). Flow cytometry
combined with Annexin V-FITC/PI labeling was used to detect the pattern of K562 cells' death induced by TS<sub>4</sub>PP-PDT.
These effects frequently lead to induction of apoptosis by the mitochondrial pathway involving caspases. The
transmission electron microscope (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to detect the
localization and time-biodistribution of sensitizers in the cells. After 1 h of TS<sub>4</sub>PP administration, the sensitizer shows a
non-uniform distribution, following that after 4h of administration, the sensitizer to be localized in some cellular targets
and an increased fluorescence intensity is being detected. After 8 h and 24 h post-administration, the sensitizer is
released from the cells and the light-irradiation (He-Ne laser, &lgr;=632.8 nm) could start. Immediately after irradiation,
many typical apoptotic bodies were seen in the cells treated. Most of the cells treated were necrotic at 24 hours following
Photodynamic therapy is a method that provides a reasonable alternative to other treatment modalities for patients with
certain cancers, and in some cases may be the preferred treatment. The therapy implies the intravenous administration of
a light-sensitive substance, the photosensitizer. The used sensitizer must absorb at long wavelength. For these purposes,
the carbon dioxide laser, He-Ne and the argon laser are particularly suitable. In this study we evaluate in vitro the
cytotoxic activity of three synthesized metallo-phthalocyanines with absorption bands in the red part of the spectrum:
zinc-di-sulphonated phthalocyanine (ZnS<sub>2</sub>Pc), zinc-tri-sulphonated phthalocyanine (ZnS<sub>3</sub>Pc) and zinc-tetrasulphonated
phthalocyanine (ZnS<sub>4</sub>Pc). Some cellular models have been used in this paper, in order to optimize the conditions of this
method, as we are presenting in this paper (<b>LSR-SF</b>(<b>SR</b>) - transplantable sarcoma in rat induced by Rous sarcoma virus
strain Schmidt-Ruppin; <b>LSCC-SF(Mc29)</b> - transplantable chicken hepatoma induced by the myelocytomatosis virus
Mc29, <b>MCF-7 cell line</b> (human breast adenocarcinoma) derived from a patient with metastatic breast cancer, <b>8-MG-BA</b>
- glioblastoma multiforme 8-MG-BA, <b>K562</b> - lymphoblastic human cell line, <b>LLC-WRC 256</b> - Walker epithelial
carcinoma. Activation of these photosensitizers retained in the cancerous cells, by red light emitted from a He-Ne laser at
&lgr;= 632.8 nm laser system, or by a diode laser emitting at 672 nm, produces a photochemical reaction that results in the
selective destruction of tumor cells.
In this study we evaluate in vitro the cytotoxic activity of two newly synthesized phthalocyanines (metallo-complexes) with absorption bands in the red part of the spectrum: zinc-tri-sulphonated phthalocyanine (ZnS<sub>4</sub>Pc). Two permanent animal tumor cell lines are used in the experiments: LSR-SF(SR)-transplantable sarcoma in rat induced by Rous sarcoma virus strain Schmidt-Ruppin and LSCC-SF(Mc29)-transplantable chicken hepatoma induced by the myelocytomatosis virus Mc29. Irradiation has been performed with a laser diode emitting at 672 nm in a wide range of radiant exposure (2-100 J/cm<sup>2</sup>) and irradiance of 120 mW/cm<sup>2</sup>. The neutral red uptake cytotoxicity assay has been used to evaluate the effect of the photosensitizers on cell viability. The light dose-response curves and light exposures that ensure viability drop to 50% and 10% have been obtained for each cell line. The ability of the compounds to induce apoptosis has been determined by acridine orange dye staining.
In this study we evaluate the cytotoxicity of 5,10,15,20- tetra (4-sulfophenyl) porphyrins on a tumor cell line LSCC-SF-Mc29, obtained from a transplantable chicken hepatoma induced by the myelocytomatosis virus Mc29, a timor line LSR-SF-SR, obtained from a transplantable sarcoma in rat induced by Rous sarcoma virus strain Schmidt-Ruppin and for normal mouse cell line (BALB/c-3T3-A31) and bovine kidney cell line (MDBK). The cells were exposed to irradiation from a pulsed CuBr vapor laser system at 510.6 nm and 578.2 nm at fluence rate 50 mW/cm<sup>2</sup> and pulse frequency rate 20 kHz. The viability of cells was determined by the neutral red uptake cytotoxicity assay. The light dose-response curves and light exposures that ensure viability drop to 50 % were obtained for each cell line. The cytotoxic effect of TS<sub>4</sub>PP is most distinguished for LSCC-SF-Mc29. The bovine cell line is more vulnerable than the mouse line, especially at 510.6 nm. The 2-4 times higher viability of the normal cell lines in comparison with the tumor lines has been obtained.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that uses a drug and light to kill tumor cells. A large number of photosensitizing agents have been tested in PDT exeperiments. The aim of the present study was to evaluate an effect of 5, 10, 15, 20-tetra (4-sulfophenyl) porphyrin (TS<sub>4</sub>PP) on viability of tumor (LSR-SF-SR, LSCC-SF-Mc29) and non-tumor (EBTr, L929) cell lines in vitro. The experiments were performed using neutral red uptake cytotoxicity test. Different concentrations -- 10, 100, 250 and 500 μg/ml, were tested. Light at 514 nm was applied using Ar-ion laser. The light doses delivered varied from 0.2 up to 2 J/cm<sup>2</sup>. The effect of the compound without irradiation was also examined.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer is based on the dye- sensitized photooxidation of different biological targets in the tumoral tissue yielding to a photochemically induced cell's death. The effectiveness of this treatment method depends on the photophysical and photochemical properties of the used photosensitizer-drug during the irradiation with visible light (laser beam) and/or the ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the photodynamic therapy applications: substitution effects, ionization and aggregation processes effects, photodegradation reaction implications, the correlation with some medical applications on human brain cells.
The spectroscopic characterization of synthetic porphyrins such as TPP, TSPP, ZnTSPP, etc. is reported, namely: absorption and laser induced fluorescence spectra in different solvents. Results about the photo toxicity of such photosensitizers in 5 percent DMSO in ns NaCl 0.9 percent on rats are shown proving the good acceptance of the solutions by the rats organisms with immediate perspectives for application on human patients. The second main line of experiments was devoted to the measurements of the irreversible modifications induced in the cell structure of the brain malignant tumors - impregnated with photosensitizers solutions - by the nitrogen pulsed laser radiation. 'In vitro' samples of brain tumor tissue were prelevated and impregnated with photosensitizer solutions during 1 hour to 48 hours. The samples were treated and kept so that before and after exposures to the laser beams the modifications due to other factors than the laser irradiation be avoided or minimized. The exposures to laser radiation were made along time intervals form 3 minutes to more than 1 hour. Irreversible modifications at cellular level following the interaction of impregnated cells with laser radiation were evidenced by optical microscopy. Concluding remarks are made about further 'in vivo' application on human patients.
This paper present the physico-chemical properties of some synthetic porphyrin dyes obtained at ZECASIN SA. We have measured the absorption, excitation and fluorescence spectra of these dyes in different solvents. From them we have concluded that the most reliable due for our studies concerning the photodynamic therapy with UV lasers is Zn II- tetrakis-sulfonatophenyl porphyrin.