Ultra Wideband (UWB) communications is one of the possible solutions for future wireless personal area network (WPAN) applications. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in the USA, allocated 7.5 GHz of unlicensed frequency bandwidth from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz for UWB communication. It is an available spectrum which can be utilised for data communication using different technologies complying with FCC regulations. This paper presents a brief overview of the world wide regulations and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standardisation updates for UWB. It also focuses on the wireless sensor network application and the use of UWB communications in biomedical sensor networks. The paper aims at the design and implementation of an optimised pulsed matched filter (OPMF) used in the digital backend of a UWB radio. The optimisations are performed at the architectural and circuit level in order to reduce hardware complexity and reduced power. The OPMF is successfully implemented using the application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design methodology and the results are compared with those obtained in previous implementation. The OPMF implementation presented in this paper yields improved characteristics such as reduction in area, almost 25% power reduction and better timing.
Proc. SPIE. 5649, Smart Structures, Devices, and Systems II
KEYWORDS: Data acquisition, Control systems, Signal detection, Relays, Electronic filtering, Signal generators, Digital signal processing, Clocks, Error analysis, Application specific integrated circuits
This paper presents the application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) implementation of an intelligent controller for a reconfigurable data acquisition (DAQ) system. The DAQ system is employed in a digital relay for power system protection application. The controller is the intelligence behind the reconfigurable architecture. It continuously monitors the voltages and currents to detect the appearance of an abnormal condition on the power transmission network. Then it will send signals to adjust DAQ system sampling speed and filter cut-off frequency for properly detecting the fault location and properly analysing the fault. A novel approach to determine the line impedance angle has been proposed. This approach eliminates the square-root and arc-tan operations to reduce the cost of the semi-custom ASIC implementation of the intelligent controller. Analysis revealed that the intelligent controller achieved a maximum operating frequency of 100MHz, with 10ns critical path delay. The controller core utilises an area of 1.9mm2.
Ultra-wideband (UWB) technology dates back to early 1980s and was originally employed in radar applications. Unlike any narrowband or broadband communication systems, an UWB system does not employ any radio frequency (RF) carrier for data transmission. Instead it uses very short period electrical pulses in the order of hundreds of pico-seconds to few nano-seconds, which justifies the availability of an ultra-high bandwidth. From a hardware implementation viewpoint, UWB system design presents many challenges such as synchronisation, power limitation and receiver design. However, the design of an UWB transceiver is less complex given the fact that the RF carrier is eliminated. In an UWB transceiver, most of the processing is performed in the digital baseband while the analog front end is
responsible for amplification, filtering and quantisation. A bank of matched filters constitutes the major portion of digital baseband section in an UWB transceiver. This paper presents the design, optimisation and field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of the matched filter bank as an attempt to minimise the overall circuit complexity, achieve higher data rates and low power consumption in UWB radios.
Proc. SPIE. 5274, Microelectronics: Design, Technology, and Packaging
KEYWORDS: Digital signal processing, Filtering (signal processing), Electronic filtering, Digital filtering, Receivers, Signal processing, Optical filters, Safety, Statistical analysis, Linear filtering
A reconfigurable digital filter for a mobile terminal receiver has been analyzed in a simulated dynamic UTRA-TDD environment. By monitoring in-band and out-of-band power ratios, the filter architecture automatically scales its length to meet the signal to noise ratio of the system, This results in optimal battery power efficiency. Analysis reveals a 60 percent power saving for the receiver filter is available for the UTRA-TDD environment. This is compared to a static length filter that meets the 3GPP specifications. The savings in power will extend talk time and stand by time of the mobile terminal.