In the framework of the ChArMEx (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) initiative, a field campaign took place in the western Mediterranean Basin between 10 June and 5 July 2013 within the ADRIMED (Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region) project. The scientific objectives of ADRIMED are the characterization of the typical “Mediterranean aerosol” and its direct radiative forcing (column closure and regional scale). This work is focused on the multi-intrusion Saharan dust transport period of moderate intensity that occurred over the western and central Mediterranean Basin during the period 14 – 27 June. The dust plumes were detected by the EARLINET/ACTRIS (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network / Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network, http://www.actris.net/) lidar stations of Barcelona (16 and 17 June) and Lecce (22 June). First, two well-known and robust radiative transfer models, parametrized by lidar profiles for the aerosol vertical distribution, are validated both in the shortwave and longwave spectral range 1) at the surface with down- and up-ward flux measurements from radiometers and 2) at the top of the atmosphere with upward flux measurements from the CERES (Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System) radiometers on board the AQUA and TERRA satellites. The differences between models and their limitations are discussed. The instantaneous and clear-sky direct radiative forcing of mineral dust is then estimated using lidar data for parametrizing the particle vertical distribution at Lecce. The difference between the obtained forcings is discussed in regard to the mineralogy and vertical structure of the dust plume.
In the framework of the project ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), the variability of aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties is examined in three regional background sites on a southwest – northeast (SW–NE) straight line in the middle of the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The three sites are on the northward transport pathway of African dust: Ersa, Corsica Island, France (43.00ºN, 9.36ºW, 80 m a.s.l), Palma de Mallorca, Mallorca Island, Spain (39.55ºN, 2.62ºE, 10 m a.s.l) and Alborán, Alboran Island, Spain (35.94ºN, 3.04ºW, 15 m a.s.l). AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun-photometer products are mainly used. A preliminary analysis shows that at Ersa and Palma sites the annual aerosol optical depth (AOD) has a similar trend with a peak around 0.2 in July. The winter/spring AOD is lower in Palma than in Ersa, while it is reverse in summer/autumn. The aerosol particle size distribution (and the coarse mode fraction) shows clearly the SW–NE gradient with a decreasing coarse mode peak (and a decreasing coarse mode fraction from 0.5 - 0.35 - 0.2 in July) along the axis Alborán - Palma de Mallorca - Ersa. In addition to the seasonal and annual variability analysis, the analysis of AERONET products is completed with a large variety of ground-based and sounding balloons remote sensing and in situ instruments during the Special Observation Period (SOP) of the ADRIMED campaign in June 2013. The second part of the presentation will focus on the comparison of the observations at Palma de Mallorca and Ersa of the same long-range transported airmasses. The observations include lidar vertical profiles, balloon borne OPC (Optical Particle Counter) and MSG/SEVIRI AOD, among others.