At IBM, one of the focus items for EUV patterning development is to enable the fullest extent of scaling to a second EUV node while maintaining single-exposure levels. The challenge for the next node of EUV patterning has been with attaining acceptable defectivity levels that can enable electrical yield at pitches 32nm and below. For single-expose EUV, the primary detractors to sub-32nm pitch yield are typically microbridging and line break defects, which have different root causes but can exist in the same dose range. Since the etch strategies for mitigating one of these defect types will result in exacerbating the other, the burden to improve defectivity cannot be placed solely on the pattern transfer process. Resist scumming, which is the root cause of microbriging, can be modulated through interactions with the resist-hardmask interface. The lack of acid at the substrate interface causes resist scumming, and therefore increasing the acidity at the resist hardmask interface can be expected to mitigate post-litho microbridge defects. As the number of EUV photons are significantly less compared to DUV exposures due to the high energy contained in each photon, an extra acid boost can also help to address the stochastics failures that dominate EUV patterning. This paper will demonstrate the concept of modulating the resist-hardmask interaction through surface activation layers, and show the subsequent effects on patterning process window and microbridging defectivity toward yield at pitches <32nm.
Block-copolymers (BCPs) offer the potential to meet the demands of next generation lithographic materials as they can self-assemble into scalable and tailorable nanometer scale patterns. In order for these materials to find wide spread adoption many challenges remain, including reproducible thin film morphology, for which the purity of block copolymers is critical. One of the sources of impurities are reaction conditions used to synthesize block copolymers that may result in the formation of homopolymer as a side product, which can impact the quality and the morphology of self-assembled features. Detection and characterization of these homopolymer impurities can be challenging by traditional methods of polymer characterization. We will discuss an alternate NMR-based method for the detection of homopolymer impurities in block copolymers – contrast enhanced diffusion ordered spectroscopy (CEDOSY). This experimental technique measures the diffusion coefficient of polymeric materials in the solution allowing for the ‘virtual’ or spectroscopic separation of BCPs that contain homopolymer impurities. Furthermore, the contrast between the diffusion coefficient of mixtures containing BCPs and homopolymer impurities can be enhanced by taking advantage of the chemical mismatch of the two blocks to effectively increase the size of the BCP (and diffusion coefficient) through the formation of micelles using a cosolvent, while the size and diffusion coefficient of homopolymer impurities remain unchanged. This enables the spectroscopic separation of even small amounts of homopolymer impurities that are similar in size to BCPs. Herein, we present the results using the CEDOSY technique with both first generation BCP system, poly(styrene)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate), as well as a second generation high-χ system.