Optical planar waveguides in Nd3+-doped phosphate glasses are fabricated by a 6.0-MeV carbon ion implantation with a dose of 6.0×1014 ions/cm2 and a 6.0-MeV oxygen ion implantation at a fluence of 6.0×1014 ions/cm2, respectively. The guided modes and the corresponding effective refractive indices were measured by a modal 2010 prism coupler. The refractive index profiles of the waveguides were analyzed based on the stopping and range of ions in matter and the RCM reflectivity calculation method. The near-field light intensity distributions were measured and simulated by an end-face coupling method and a ﬁnite-difference beam propagation method, respectively. The comparison of optical properties between the carbon-implanted waveguide and the oxygen-implanted waveguide was carried out. The microluminescence and Raman spectroscopy investigations reveal that fluorescent properties of Nd3+ ions and glass microstructure are well preserved in the waveguide region, which suggests that the carbon/oxygen-implanted waveguide is a good candidate for integrated photonic devices.