A vision-based on-machine measurement system (OMM) was developed to improve manufacturing effectiveness. It was based on a visual probe to enable the CNC machine tool itself to act as a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) to inspect a workpiece. The proposed OMM system was composed of a visual probe and two software modules: computer-aided inspection planning (CAIP) module and measurement data processing (MDP) module. The auto-focus function of the visual probe was realized by using astigmatic method. The CAIP module was developed based on a CAD development platform with Open CASCADE as its kernel. The MDP module includes some algorithms for determination of inspection parameters, for example, the chamfered hole was measured through focus variation. The entire system was consequently verified on a CNC milling machine.
A polarization-sensitive white light interferometer (PSWLI), which is a promising technique that can be used to measure the stress induced birefringence, is developed. The use of wide-spectrum light source brings to PSWLI a resolution in the micron range, but the difficulty arises when searching for the best fringe contrast within the extremely short coherence length, especially for the Linnik interference configuration. To tackle this problem, an autofocus device based on the improved astigmatic method is embedded in the PSWLI system to firstly automatically determine the best foci of the reference mirror and the test sample. Then the minimization of optical path difference (OPD) of two interference arms are implemented by the root mean square fringe contrast function combined with a 4×4 pixel binning of the CCD camera. The autofocus time is no more than 0.3 second and the minimization of OPD has a speed of 2.2 min/mm. Finally, the developed PSWLI system is calibrated by the Berek compensator and the birefringence measurement result is obtained by simultaneously calculating the phase retardation, the optical axis orientation, the reflectance and the stress map of a stress induced birefringence sample.
Uniform irradiance and color adjustability are the key features in the design of lighting for machine vision inspection systems. A simple and practical design tool of angled light-emitting-diode (LED) ring arrays for uniform near-field irradiance has been developed by introducing a simple model to simplify the complexity of nonrotational symmetric irradiance distribution of angled LEDs. The color distribution and color uniformity of the ring array assembled with RGB LEDs are analyzed based on the analytical model of color mixing. According to the theoretical analysis, the simulated results, and the design exemplifications, the practical design tool offers an easy way to estimate the performance of an RGB LED ring array and can be considered as a starting point to reduce the computation time for exact designs that must use a realistic LED model.
Considering the potential clinical importance, the surface tension of ocular cornea under the action of normal physiological intraocular pressure is estimated, and a novel technique and a simple mechanical model for determining the tension are also presented in this paper. An instrument embodying mainly a CCD camera, an optical staff gauge and a manometer was developed primarily to measure both the surface point displacement and intraocular pressure of the cornea. A simple theoretical model was used to characterize the tensions of the ocular corneas under the action of the intraocular pressure. Due to the difficulty in obtaining the human cornea, laboratory experiments were carried out on porcine cornea specimens. The thickness of the specimens was accurately measured by optical coherence tomography. The matrix and collagen properties within the corneal tissue were manifested in the experiment. Experimental results on porcine corneas showed that the present technique is applicable to estimate the surface tension. In the normal physiological intraocular pressure range, both meridian and circumference tensions of the porcine corneas along the radial coordinate distribute are not uniform.