The stretched pulse has narrower pulse duration and high pulse energy than conventional soliton, so that the stretched pulse can improve the potential application values of 2 μm mode-locked fiber laser in remote sensing, mid-infrared source, material processing and other applications. In this paper, the dispersion management method is adopted to accurately manage the dispersion in the cavity using a commercial ultra-high numerical aperture fiber and a common single-mode fiber. Based on the nonlinear polarization rotation technology to achieve mode-locking, when the pump power is set to 645 mW, the polarization controller is adjusted to achieve stretched pulse output with a de-chirped pulse duration of 581 fs. The center wavelength is 1939.26 nm and the 3-dB bandwidth is 21.8 nm. The repetition rate is 28.9 MHz and the signal to noise ratio is 54.21 dB. At the maximum pump power, the direct output power of the resonant cavity is 9.98 mW, and the corresponding single pulse energy is 0.34 nJ.
We report the experimental results of various soliton molecules in a passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) technology. Not only stable single solitons but also soliton molecules can be observed in the same cavity. With the increase of the pump power, soliton triplets composed of three solitons can also be observed. It is found that the ratio of the pulse separation to the pulse width is less than 5, which indicates that the direct soliton interaction leads to the formation of bound states. On the other hand, the effect of the dispersive wave is to suppress the random relative phase change between the solitons and leads to phase-locking. Meanwhile, we analyzed the complex nonlinear interactions that form soliton molecules and enriched the nonlinear dynamics of soliton molecules at 2-μm.
In this paper, by shortening the cavity length, we have realized all-fiber Tm-doped fiber laser with pulse width less than 600 fs based on nonlinear polarization rotation effect. Under the condition of pump power of 0.281 W, the traditional soliton limit pulse is realized by adjusting the polarization controllers. The pulse width is 560fs and consistent with the theoretical calculation of the limit pulse width 569fs, repetition frequency is 55.25 MHz, the central wavelength is 1978.34 nm and the 3dB spectral width is 7.25 nm. The traditional soliton index is helpful to improve the application of ultrafast Tm-doped fiber laser in mid-infrared light source and medical operation.