We recover the shape and orientation of an object by analyzing the spatial phase and amplitude of a transmitted optical beam using a single pixel. We experimentally demonstrate using the complex spatial spectrum of multiple sequential measurements of a varying probe beam. Specifically, we transmit a structured beam that is tailored to have one mode of the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modal basis set, and the beam is varied to sequentially have a unique azimuthal (l) and radial (p) value. When each uniquely structured beam probes an object, there will be coupling of power from the pure mode to other LG modes. The complex phase and amplitude coefficients of this modal power coupling will provide a “signature” of the probed object’s 2D structure, and this signature can be detected using a single pixel. We identify a “fan-shaped” object with an opening angle of 120˚ and different angular orientations by analyzing the corresponding complex spatial spectrum of multiple sequential measurements, such that each subsequent tailored mode has l and p indices in the range -15 - +15 and 0-30, respectively. Results show that the amplitude spectrum is insensitive to the object’s angular orientation, whereas the phase spectrum predictably shifts with orientation. Additionally, we demonstrate that an irregular image with a ‘SC’ logo can be reconstructed using the complex modal spectrum. The structural similarity (SSIM) of the reconstructed image increases as the number of modes increases. Specifically, the SSIM increases by 83.5% when the number of modes increases from 36 (6 by 6) to 961 (31 by 31).
Efficient light harvesting in a thin layer of crystalline Si can be realized by implementing nanoscale pillars and holes to the device structure. The major drawback of the pillars and holes based photovoltaic devices is high surface to volume ratio, contributing to an increase in surface recombination rate of the photo-generated carriers. The common techniques used in pillars/holes fabrication such as dry etching make the surface even worse by bombarding it with high energy ions. Therefore, such damaged surfaces of high aspect ratio structures need to be effectively passivated. In this study, we demonstrate a hole based thin crystalline Si photovoltaic device with enhanced open circuit voltage and short circuit current after a successful surface passivation process through a wet oxidation. In addition, the effect of passivation layer fabricated by rapid thermal oxide growth on photo response is investigated. A successful fabrication of thin crystalline Si solar cells can lead to the applications of ultra-thin, highly efficient, flexible and wearable energy sources.