Quantum dot comb sources integrated with silicon photonic ring-resonator filters and modulators enable the realization of optical sub-components and modules for both inter- and intra-data-center applications. Low-noise, multi-wavelength, single-chip, laser sources, PAM4 modulation and direct detection allow a practical, scalable, architecture for applications beyond 400 Gb/s. Multi-wavelength, single-chip light sources are essential for reducing power dissipation, space and cost, while silicon photonic ring resonators offer high-performance with space and power efficiency.
The structure of the optical path of a novel VOA integrated receiver is presented. The method to enhance the attenuation performance of the Receiver is described in detail. The standard coplanar package module exhibits a fluent attenuation curve and can achieve more than -20dB attenuation at ~ 6.5V drive voltage. S21, S22 performance and specifications of the module are explained in the paper. All these features provide customers considerable benefits, including high quality, low power consumption and cost, board real estate flexibility and ease of use.
MEMS devices can be successfully commercialized in favour of competing technologies only if they offer an advantage to the customer in terms of lower cost or increased functionality. There are limited markets where MEMS can be manufactured cheaper than similar technologies due to large volumes: automotive, printing technology, wireless communications, etc. However, success in the marketplace can also be realized by adding significant value to a system at minimal cost or leverging MEMS technology when other solutions simply will not work. This paper describes a thermally actuated, MEMS based, variable optical attenuator that is co-packaged with existing opto-electronic devices to develop an integrated 10Gb/s SONET/SDH receiver. The configuration of the receiver opto-electronics and relatively low voltage availability (12V max) in optical systems bar the use of LCD, EO, and electro-chromic style attenuators. The device was designed and fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) starting material. The design and performance of the device (displacement, power consumption, reliability, physical geometry) was defined by the receiver parameters geometry. This paper will describe how these design parameters (hence final device geometry) were determined in light of both the MEMS device fabrication process and the receiver performance. Reference will be made to the design tools used and the design flow which was a joint effort between the MEMS vendor and the end customer. The SOI technology offered a robust, manufacturable solution that gave the required performance in a cost-effective process. However, the singulation of the devices required the development of a new singulation technique that allowed large volumes of silicon to be removed during fabrication yet still offer high singulation yields.
This paper will present the concluding results of a comprehensive study aimed at developing a model for predicting the overall reliability of an asymmetric thermal actuator. This actuator is designed for co-packaged use as a variable optical attenuator (VOA) within a 10 Gbps optical receiver. This paper will address the limitations of a previously reported vision recognition system. It is shown that the electrical resistance change correlates well with the displacement change over time, and as a result, simple in-situ resistance monitoring for degradation detection can easily be realized. The novel methodology employed to estimate the lifetime performance of the MEMS VOA is also presented; whereby, the accelerated ageing wearout model derived from 93,600 device hours is combined with the module characteristics, and all associated error coefficients in a Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation results will provide the end user with a 3 sigma confidence prediction of the receiver over-life attenuation curve and all end of life conditions associated with the MEMS component. It will be demonstrated that when designed properly, a thermal actuator will provide predictable accurate and reliable stability over life.
This paper describes a test system and presents preliminary results of a long-term reliability study of an electro-thermally actuated integrated MEMS optical attenuator. These tests are designed to address the specific failure modes and life prediction models required for "set and forget" components and to identify deficiencies that exist in the current telecom (Telcordia) testing standards as they apply to MEMS. The failure modes are activated by overstressing the devices to a much higher power than would be observed under normal operating conditions. The paper describes a multi-module experimental test station for exciting devices at up eight different power levels, both AC and DC. At set intervals devices are tested off-board to measure changes in actuator deflection and resistance over time. The preliminary results show that devices start to degrade at power levels 92% over operating power after 400 hours of stress.
Conference Committee Involvement (3)
Reliability, Packaging, Testing, and Characterization of MEMS/MOEMS V
25 January 2006 | San Jose, California, United States
Reliability, Packaging, Testing, and Characterization of MEMS/MOEMS IV
25 January 2005 | San Jose, California, United States
Reliability, Testing, and Characterization of MEMS/MOEMS III
26 January 2004 | San Jose, California, United States