The use of drones has almost exploded almost in the last five years in Finland. The utilization of drones has increased and more and more applications have emerged. In addition to video cameras, thermal cameras and hyperspectral cameras have been used as well as their combinations. The use of thermography has been more qualitative, as in case of thermography in general when devices became more common and the prices lowered. The progress of optical measurement devices and image processing software will give more and more opportunities for R&D. It is essential to convert data obtained from a given object to information that is beneficial to the parties - the question is about the interpretation of the images and also how to combine the information from different wavelengths. This will require knowledge of the phenomenon or subject and factors affecting it. Drones provide better opportunities to observe large areas. The most important result should be, anyway, to increase information about the subject. In this presentation some applications will be introduced: Visible video and thermography in built environment evaluation, surveillance, firefighting and thermography and hyperspectral in agriculture. The possible future applications will be will be evaluated. Dealing with building thermography, drones give better possibilities to scan the whole building and especially looking at the top floors and especially the roofs. The structures be known in advance and several measurements are often required under different conditions. In surveillance, people have been searched by thermography for a long time, but drones can be used more effectively than in case of airplanes or helicopters. Interesting application is thermography combined with hyperspectral scanning in agriculture. Scheduled methods, processes and routines are needed.
In-line mixing technologies used in paper and pulp manufacturing have been studied long and broadly by XAMK Fiberlaboratory in Savonlinna, Finland. Especially, wider introduction and diversification of technologies related to mixing of paper chemicals have created a need to determined research of the in-line mixing technologies. In Finnish research project FLASH, a ground was based for researching and developing the fast in-line mixing techniques together with companies operating in pulp and paper industry segment. Application potential, basic knowledge, measurement technologies, experiment techniques, and research facilities were surveyed for utilizing them later in practical processes. One of the tested measurement technologies was high-speed infrared imaging.<p> </p> The high-speed infrared imaging tests were carried out together by VTT, XAMK and the companies in Fiberlaboratory research facility in 2013-2015. The Fiberlaboratory research facility includes medium-consistency pulp (MC) chemical mixing equipment, which is almost equal to real life paper mill chemical mixing environment. The infrared imaging was done with the help of IR transmitting sapphire window attached to suitable point in mixing tube system. Temperature differences of main flow and mixing flow enabled analyzing and calculating mixing indexes for different mixing drive parameters successfully.<p> </p> VTT has also designed a new kind of infrared omnilens for example for panoramic streetview thermography. The VTT omnilens technology enables the streetview thermography with a single infrared camera. Horizontal 360 degree infrared image is achieved by novel lens solution and also vertical image portion is possible. The streetview thermography is useful when finding thermal leaks from buildings in wide area or it can be used to find thermal leaks inside buildings with wheeled small vehicles. Also, utilizing the omnilens in drones to prevent them to collide each other or other drone applications are possible in the future.
The certification procedure for building thermographers in Finland was launched 2003. After 14 years training courses the interpretation and reporting procedures have been renewed and modernized, also the new requirements have been now accepted for building thermographers. The normal procedure of building thermography is two-stage thermography in connection of air-tightness test and now first time there was a pilot course combining the air-tightness and building thermography certification. In this presentation some updated requirements for building thermographers are introduced, also typical deficiencies and errors what the thermographers do.<p> </p> Because European Union`s Energy Performance of Buildings Directive came into the force in the member states, it caused lot of changes in Building Codes in Finland, and now the role of building codes will be changed, too. This has caused the generalization of building thermography during the last 10-15 years, and this development also raised the certification of building thermographers.<p> </p> Aerial thermography using drones has grown rapidly. Other wavelengths can be combined with thermography, like hyperspectral imaging and of course normal visual imaging. There are no guidelines dealing with the use of drones and aerial thermography for various applications. This paper also briefly discusses the challenges of drones based on Finnish experiences.
The certification procedure for building thermographers in Finland was launched 2003, when also was published the first guidelines in interpretation of thermal images and reporting guidelines. After 12 years training courses a need has emerged to complement and modernize the interpretation and reporting, also to update what kind of thermal imagers can be used for various applications. Due to the technical progress, performance of devices has improved and image processing softwares have developed. In this paper the new guidelines are introduced, as well some examples of the most common errors of interpretation. The normal procedure is two-stage thermography in connection of air-tightness test.
The paper is discussing about infrared scanning of PV solar plants. It is important that the performance of each solar panel and cell is verified. One new possibility compared to traditional ground-based scanning (handheld camera) is the utilization of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). In this paper results from a PV solar Plant in Western Greece are introduced. The nominal power of the solar plants were 0, 9 MW and 2 MW and they were scanned both by a ground-controlled drone and by handheld equipment. It is essential to know all the factors effecting to results and also the time of scanning is important. The results done from the drone and from ground-based scanning are compared; also results from various altitudes and time of day are discussed. <p> </p>The UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle/RPAS (Remote Piloted Aircraft Systems) will give an excellent opportunity to monitor various targets which are impossible or difficult to access from the ground. Compared to fixed-wing and helicopter-based platforms it will give advantages but also this technology has limitations. One limitation is the weight of the equipment and the short operational range and short flight time. Also valid procedures must be created for different solutions in the future. The most important thing, as in all infrared thermography applications, is the proper interpretation of results.
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive came in to the force in Europe couple of years ago and it had an immediate
effect on Building Codes in Europe. Finland have changed its building codes since 2007 - the insulation requirements
have been tightened and the requirements have been specified. The biggest change is energy efficient calculations and
determination of energy efficiency and energy label for buildings. This has caused a boom of new service providers
(thermography services, air-tightness measurements and other services like new calculation tools). Thermography is used
in verification in performance of buildings. In this presentation some examples of building thermography in walk-through
energy audits combined with the results of energy efficiency calculations are presented - also some special
problems in buildings of specific use (e.g. an art museum) and use of thermography to solve them.
Black liquor is the fuel of Kraft recovery boilers. It is sprayed into the furnace of a recovery boiler through splashplate
nozzles. The operation of a recovery boiler is largely influenced by the particle size and particle size distribution of black
liquor. When entrained by upwards-flowing flue gas flow, small droplet particles may form carry-over and cause the
fouling of heat transfer surfaces. Large droplet particles hit the char bed and the walls of the furnace without being dried.
In this study, particles of black liquor sprays were imaged using a high-speed infrared camera. Measurements were done
in a functional recovery boiler in a pulp mill. Objective was to find a suitable wavelength range and settings such as
integration time, frame rate and averaging for the camera.
The improvement of energy efficiency is the key issue after the energy performance of buildings directive came into the
force in European Union countries. The city of Kuopio participate a project, in which different tools will be used,
generated and tested to improve the energy efficiency of public buildings. In this project there are 2 schools, the other
consuming much more heating energy than the other same type of school. In this paper the results of the thermography in
normal conditions and under 50 Pa pressure drop will be presented; as well as the results of remote controlled air
tightness test of the buildings. Thermography combined with air tightness test showed clearly the reasons of specific
consumption differences of heating energy - also in the other hand, the measurements showed the problems in the
performance of ventilation system. Thermography, air tightness test and other supporting measurements can be used
together to solve energy loss problems - if these measurements will be carried out by proper way.
The low energy efficiency of conventional light sources is mainly caused by generation of waste heat. We used infrared
(IR) imaging in order to monitor the heating of both LED tube luminaires and ordinary T8 fluorescent tubes. The IR
images showed clearly how the surface temperatures of the fluorescent tube ends quickly rose up to about +50...+70°C,
whereas the highest surface temperatures seen on the LED tubes were only about +30...+40°C. The IR images
demonstrated how the heat produced by the individual LED chips can be efficiently guided to the supporting structure in
order to keep the LED emitters cool and hence maintain efficient operation. The consumed electrical power and
produced illuminance were also recorded during 24 hour measurements. In order to assess the total luminous efficacy of
the luminaires, separate luminous flux measurements were made in a large integrating sphere. The currently available
LED tubes showed efficacies of up to 88 lm/W, whereas a standard "cool white" T8 fluorescent tube produced ca. 75
lm/W. Both lamp types gave ca. 110 - 130 lx right below the ceiling-mounted luminaire, but the LED tubes consume
only 40 - 55% of the electric power compared to fluorescent tubes.