In this paper we demonstrate a three-dimensional (3D) photonic integration scheme based on crystalline silicon. We
develop a process using SU-8 based adhesive bonding to fabricate vertically stacked, double-layer silicon
nanomembranes. A single-layer silicon photonic integrated circuit fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chip and a
bare SOI chip are bonded together, followed by removal of the bare SOI chip’s silicon substrate and buried oxide layer,
to form a silicon nanomembrane as a platform for additional photonic layer. We designed and fabricated subwavelength
nanostructure based fiber-to-chip grating coupler on the bonded silicon nanomembrane, and also inter-layer grating
coupler for coupling between two silicon nanomembranes. The fiber-to-chip grating coupler has a peak efficiency of -3.9
dB at 1545 nm operating wavelength with transverse-electric (TE) polarization. The inter-layer grating coupler has a
peak efficiency of -6.8 dB at 1533 nm operating wavelength with TE polarization. The demonstrated approach serves as
a potential solution for 3D photonic integration and novel 3D photonic devices.
Over the past decade conducting polymer electrodes have played an important role in bio-sensing and actuation.
Recent developments in the field of organic electronics have made available a variety of devices that bring unique
capabilities at the interface with biology. One example is organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) that are being
developed for a variety of bio-sensing applications, including the detection of ions, and metabolites, such as glucose and
Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are organic salts, which are liquid at ambient temperature. Their nonvolatile
character and thermal stability makes them an attractive alternative to conventional organic solvents. Here we
report an enzymatic sensor based on an organic electro-chemical transistor with RTIL's as an integral part of its structure
and as an immobilization medium for the enzyme and the mediator. Further investigation shows that these platforms can
be incorporated into flexible materials such as carbon cloth and can be utilized for bio-sensing. The aim is to incorporate
the overall platform in a wearable sensor to improve athlete performance with regards to training. In this manuscript an
introduction to ionic liquids (ILs), IL - enzyme mixtures and a combination of these novel materials being used on
OECTs are presented.