This study contained two experimental examinations of the cognitive activities such as visual attention and memory in viewing stereoscopic (3D) images. For this study, partially converted 3D images were used with binocular parallax added to a specific region of the image. In Experiment 1, change blindness was used as a presented stimulus. The visual attention and impact on memory were investigated by measuring the response time to accomplish the given task. In the change blindness task, an 80 ms blank was intersected between the original and altered images, and the two images were presented alternatingly for 240 ms each. Subjects were asked to temporarily memorize the two switching images and to compare them, visually recognizing the difference between the two. The stimuli for four conditions (2D, 3D, Partially converted 3D, distracted partially converted 3D) were randomly displayed for 20 subjects. The results of Experiment 1 showed that partially converted 3D images tend to attract visual attention and are prone to remain in viewer’s memory in the area where moderate negative parallax has been added.
In order to examine the impact of a dynamic binocular disparity on partially converted 3D images, an evaluation experiment was conducted that applied learning, distraction, and recognition tasks for 33 subjects. The learning task involved memorizing the location of cells in a 5 × 5 matrix pattern using two different colors. Two cells were positioned with alternating colors, and one of the gray cells was moved up, down, left, or right by one cell width. Experimental conditions was set as a partially converted 3D condition in which a gray cell moved diagonally for a certain period of time with a dynamic binocular disparity added, a 3D condition in which binocular disparity was added to all gray cells, and a 2D condition. The correct response rates for recognition of each task after the distraction task were compared. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the correct response rate in the partial 3D condition was significantly higher with the recognition task than in the other conditions. These results showed that partially converted 3D images tended to have a visual attraction and affect viewer’s memory.
This paper describes an experiment that focuses on disparity changes in emotional scenes of stereoscopic (3D) images, in which an examination of the effects on pleasant and arousal was carried out by adding binocular disparity to 2D images that evoke specific emotions, and applying disparity modification based on the disparity analysis of prominent 3D movies. From the results of the experiment, it was found that pleasant and arousal was increased by expanding 3D space to a certain level. In addition, pleasant gradually decreased and arousal gradually increased by expansion of 3D space above a certain level.
This paper describes a study that focuses on disparity changes in emotional scenes of stereoscopic (3D) images, in which
an examination of the effects on pleasant and arousal was carried out by adding binocular disparity to 2D images that
evoke specific emotions, and applying disparity modification based on the disparity analysis of famous 3D movies.
From the results of the experiment, for pleasant, a significant difference was found only for the main effect of the
emotions. On the other hand, for arousal, there was a trend of increasing the evaluation values in the order 2D condition,
3D condition and 3D condition applied the disparity modification for happiness, surprise, and fear. This suggests the
possibility that binocular disparity and the modification affect arousal.
The methods available for delivering stereoscopic (3D) display using glasses can be classified as time-multiplexing and
spatial-multiplexing. With both methods, intrinsic visual artifacts result from the generation of the 3D image pair on a
flat panel display device. In the case of the time-multiplexing method, an observer perceives three artifacts: flicker, the
Mach-Dvorak effect, and a phantom array. These only occur under certain conditions, with flicker appearing in any
conditions, the Mach-Dvorak effect during smooth pursuit eye movements (SPM), and a phantom array during saccadic
eye movements (saccade). With spatial-multiplexing, the artifacts are temporal-parallax (due to the interlaced video
signal), binocular rivalry, and reduced spatial resolution. These artifacts are considered one of the major impediments to
the safety and comfort of 3D display users. In this study, the implications of the artifacts for the safety and comfort are
evaluated by examining the psychological changes they cause through subjective symptoms of fatigue and the depth
sensation. Physiological changes are also measured as objective responses based on analysis of heart and brain activation
by visual artifacts. Further, to understand the characteristics of each artifact and the combined effects of the artifacts,
four experimental conditions are developed and tested. The results show that perception of artifacts differs according to
the visual environment and the display method. Furthermore visual fatigue and the depth sensation are influenced by the
individual characteristics of each artifact. Similarly, heart rate variability and regional cerebral oxygenation changes by
perception of artifacts in conditions.
Digital 3D cinema has recently become popular and a number of high-quality 3D films have been produced. However, in
contrast with advances in 3D display technology, it has been pointed out that there is a lack of suitable 3D content and
content creators. Since 3D display methods and viewing environments vary widely, there is expectation that high-quality
content will be multi-purposed. On the other hand, there is increasing interest in the bio-medical effects of image content
of various types and there are moves toward international standardization, so 3D content production needs to take into
consideration safety and conformity with international guidelines. The aim of the authors' research is to contribute to the
production and application of 3D content that is safe and comfortable to watch by developing a scalable 3D conversion technology. In this paper, the authors focus on the process of changing the screen size, examining a conversion algorithm and its effectiveness. The authors evaluated the visual load imposed during the viewing of various 3D content converted by the prototype algorithm as compared with ideal conditions and with content expanded without conversion. Sheffe's paired comparison method was used for evaluation. To examine the effects of screen size reduction on viewers, changes in user impression and experience were elucidated using the IBQ methodology. The results of the evaluation are presented along with a discussion of the effectiveness and potential of the developed scalable 3D conversion algorithm
and future research tasks.