Proc. SPIE. 10978, Advanced Photon Counting Techniques XIII
KEYWORDS: Near infrared, CMOS sensors, Imaging systems, Cameras, LIDAR, Sensors, Silicon, Single photon, Image sensors, Single photon detectors, 3D image processing, Direct detection LIDAR, Single-photon counters, Time of flight range image sensors
Initial results of electrical and optical characterization of Voxtel’s first generation 256 x 256 dual-mode silicon singlephoton avalanche diode (SPAD) image sensor are presented. The SPAD image sensor is a dual-mode device capable of sequential passive single-photon-counting (2D) and active single-photon lidar (3D) range imaging at greater than 250 frames per second, full-frame. The sensor was developed in 180-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor imagesensor technology with a pixel pitch of 30 μm and fill factor of 9%; and it achieves room temperature per-pixel dark count rate of less than 55 Hz (0.63 Hz/μm2), peak photon detection probability of 29% (at 480 nm) and timing jitter of 268 ps full width at half maximum at the optimal operating point. Preliminary imaging results in 2D and 3D mode are presented.
The latest three-dimensional imaging results from Voxtel teamed with the University are Dayton are presented using Voxtel’s VOX3D™ series flash lidar camera. This camera uses the VOX3D series flash lidar sensor which integrates a 128×128 InGaAs p-i-n detector array with a custom, multi-mode, low-noise, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor readout integrated circuit. In this paper, results are presented of: short-range (< 10 m) three-dimensional lidar imaging performed at University of Dayton with a fast, low-power eye safe laser (20-μJ per pulse, 10-kHz) in high-bandwidth, windowed region-of-interest mode; and longer range (30 – 150 m) outdoor lidar tests performed at Voxtel with two different eye safe lasers (300-μJ and 3-mJ per pulse, 10-Hz) in full-frame low-bandwidth mode. The VOX3D camera achieves a single-shot timing precision of 23.2 cm and 10.7 cm in high-bandwidth and low-bandwidth modes respectively, with the timing precision in high bandwidth mode being limited by camera electronics. The VOX3D camera has a maximum range of 51 m and 159 m with 300-μJ and 3-mJ lasers in full-frame low-bandwidth mode, respectively.