We demonstrated a middle-wavelength infrared (MWIR) graphene photodetector using the photogating effect. This effect was induced by photosensitizers situated around a graphene channel that coupled incident light and generated a large electrical charge. The graphene-based MWIR photodetector consisted of a top graphene channel, source–drain electrodes, an insulator layer, and a photosensitizer, and its photoresponse characteristics were determined by current measurements. Irradiation of the graphene channel of the vacuum cooled device by an MWIR laser generated a clear photoresponse, as evidenced by modulation of the output current during irradiation. The MWIR photoresponse with the photogating effect was 100 times greater than that obtained from conventional graphene photodetectors without the photogating effect. The device maintained its MWIR photoresponse at temperatures up to 150 K. The effect of the graphene channel size on the responsivity was evaluated to assess the feasibility of reducing the photodetector area, and decreasing the channel area from 100 to 25 μm2 improved the responsivity from 61.7 to 321.0 AW − 1. The results obtained in our study will contribute to the development of high-performance graphene-based IR imaging sensors.
Graphene-based transistors were investigated as simple photodetectors for a broad range of wavelengths. Graphene transistors were prepared using p-doped silicon (Si) substrates with a SiO2 layer, and source and drain electrodes. Monolayer graphene was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition and transferred onto the substrates, and the graphene channel region was then formed. The photoresponse was measured in the broadband wavelength range from the visible, near-infrared (NIR), and mid- to long-wavelength IR (MWIR to LWIR) regions. The photoresponse was enhanced by the photogating induced by the Si substrate at visible wavelengths. Enhancement by the thermal effect of the insulator layer became dominant in the LWIR region, which indicates that the photoresponse of graphene-based transistors can be controlled by the surrounding materials, depending on the operation wavelength. These results are expected to contribute to provide the key mechanism of high-performance graphene-based photodetectors.
Graphene has remarkable optoelectronic properties and thus would represent a means to improve infrared (IR) photodetectors. As a result of its Dirac-cone structure, graphene exhibits broadband light absorption and a rapid response. Unlike quantum photomaterials, graphene can also be synthesized inexpensively via a non-toxic process. Despite these advantages, graphene-based photodetectors suffer from low responsivity due to the low absorption of graphene of around 2.3%. Therefore, there is a strong demand to enhance the IR responsivity of graphene photodetectors and expand the range of IR applications. In this study, enhancement of the middle-wavelength IR (MWIR) photoresponsivity of graphene photodetectors using the photogating effect was investigated. The photo-gating effect is induced by photosensitizers, which are located around the graphene channel and couple incident light and generate a large electrical change. The graphenebased MWIR photodetectors consisted of a top graphene channel, source-drain electrodes, insulator layer, and photosensitizer. The photoresponse characteristics were investigated through current measurements using a device analyzer. The device was vacuum-cooled and the graphene channel was irradiated with light from a MWIR laser. The device exhibited a clear MWIR photoresponse observed as modulation of the output current during irradiation. The MWIR photoresponse with the photo-gating effect was 100 times higher than that of conventional graphene photodetectors without the photo-gating effect. The device maintained its MWIR photoresponse at temperatures up to 150 K. The results obtained in this study will contribute to the development of high-performance graphene-based IR image sensors.
Graphene is an atomically thin carbon sheet with a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice structure that has drawn significant attention in many fields due to its unique electronic and optical properties. In this study, graphene Salisbury screen metasurfaces (GSMs) were theoretically investigated as wavelength-selective plasmonic metamaterial absorbers. The GSMs consist of a top graphene sheet, a middle insulator layer and a bottom reflector. The absorption wavelengths of GSMs with a continuous graphene sheet are demonstrated to be controllable according to the insulator layer thickness, which is similar to the case for a conventional Salisbury screen. The insulator thickness can be used to control the optical impedance to incident light using the graphene as a resistive sheet. GSMs with a periodic micropatch array of graphene can be used to control the absorption wavelength, mainly based on the graphene micropatch size and symmetry in conjunction with the insulator thickness. This wavelength selectivity is mainly attributed to the plasmonic resonance in graphene. In both structures, the chemical potential of graphene can be used to tune the absorbance and the absorption wavelength. These results will contribute to the development of electrically tunable and high-performance graphenebased wavelength- or polarization-selective absorbers or emitters.
Advanced functional infrared (IR) photodetectors with wavelength selectivity are promising for a wide range of applications, such as multicolor imaging, gas analysis and biomedical analysis. Graphene is considered to be a promising material for novel IR detectors. However, the absorption of graphene is constant at approximately 2.3% and rather small. We have developed multispectral high-performance graphene IR photodetectors using metal-insulator-metal (MIM) or single-layer (SL) plasmonic metasurfaces (PMs). MIM- or SL-PMs induce localized surface plasmons on their surfaces and enhance absorption at the wavelength, which can be controlled by their surface patterns, such as the period or the gaps between micropatches. The absorption of graphene with PMs was theoretically investigated for various structural parameters. The absorption wavelength can be controlled based on plasmonic resonance by varying the surface geometry of the PMs. Graphene-based IR photodetectors with SL-PMs were fabricated by the chemical vapor deposition of graphene and then transferred onto the PMs. Wavelength-selective enhancement of the optical absorption and detection by graphene could be achieved due to the effect of the PMs. The results obtained here are expected to contribute to the realization of multispectral graphene infrared image sensors.
Graphene, which is carbon arranged in atomically thin sheets, has drawn significant attention in many fields due to its unique electronic and optical properties. Photodetectors are particularly strong candidates for graphene applications due to the need for a broadband photoresponse from the ultraviolet to terahertz regions, high-speed operation, and low fabrication costs, which have not been achieved with the present technology. Here, graphene-based transistors were investigated as simple photodetectors for a broad range of wavelength. The photoresponse mechanism was determined to be dependent on factors such as the operation wavelength, the components near the graphene channel of the photodetector, and temperature. Here, we report the detailed mechanism that defines the photoresponse of graphene-based transistors. Graphene transistors were prepared using doped silicon (Si) substrates with a SiO<sub>2</sub> layer, and source and drain electrodes. Single-layer graphene was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition, transferred onto the substrates, and the graphene channel region was then formed. The photoresponse was measured in the visible, near-infrared (NIR), and mid- and long-wavelength IR (MWIR and LWIR) regions. The results indicated that the photoresponse was enhanced by the Si substrate gating at visible wavelengths. Cooling was required at wavelengths longer than NIR due to thermal noise. Enhancement by the thermal effect of the insulator layer becomes dominant in the LWIR region, which indicates that the photoresponse of graphene-based transistors can be controlled by the surrounding materials, depending on the operation wavelength. These results are expected to contribute to the development of high-performance graphenebased photodetectors.