While demonstrating the use of an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) to provide a communications relay for surfaced unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) at Unmanned Warrior 2016, it became apparent that a closer look was needed to determine the optimal protocol to transfer automatic target recognition image files. Initial efforts with User Datagram Protocol (UDP) were highly unreliable with a very low success rate, despite extensive radio configuration improvements. Afterwards, several protocols were evaluated and UDP-based Data Transfer Protocol (UDT) seemed to provide a good hybrid of the standard transport layer protocols UDP and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). UDT is an application layer protocol built on UDP with some TCP-like reliability characteristics. This paper documents a careful comparison study of UDP, TCP, and UDT that was performed to determine the optimal protocol for this form of data transfer. Each protocol was used to transfer image files, first in a baseline configuration, then with network emulation packet loss, and finally with real data radios in ideal and then more realistic conditions. Despite that fact that UDT was originally designed to transfer large data sets over high-bandwidth networks, this study demonstrated that it is also ideal for transporting relatively small data sets in high packet loss environments.
JAUS is an open architecture designed to support interoperability between unmanned vehicles, payloads and controllers.<sup>1</sup> However, it competes against a plethora of other open architecture technologies and standards. In many cases, there is much to be gained by merging multiple open architecture components within a single system. One such case is with the Navy’s Common Control System (CCS) architecture utilized by the Multi-robot Operator Control Unit version 4 (MOCU4). CCS has primarily focused on Group 3-5 aircraft whereas MOCU4 is focused on ground and maritime unmanned vehicles. To utilize both of these architectures within a single system, a translation architecture called the SAE JAUS Vehicle Interface Service (VIS) has been designed and implemented by the MOCU4 team at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems (SPAWAR) Center Pacific (SSC Pacific). This paper will explore the design considerations and decisions of this VIS, as well as provide details of its implementation. It will also describe briefly how the VIS has been developed and utilized for the following projects: Navy Common Control System (CCS) integration with Large Training Vehicle (LTV), Control Station Human Machine Interface (CaSHMI), and the Universal Tactical Controller (UTC) for the Common Robotic System - Individual (CRS(I)).
The Joint Force Protection Advanced Security System (JPFASS) is a Department of Defense effort to improve
conventional force protection. It is sponsored and managed by Joint Program Manager - Guardian (JPM-G). The main
objective of JFPASS is to provide an integrated and layered base defense system, which includes data fusion, Command
and Control (C2) nodes, Common Operation Picture (COP) nodes, and full integration of a selected range of robots,
sensors, cameras, weapons, tracking systems, and other C2 systems. The URIM is the main integration tool for several
sensors, cameras, and weapons in JFPASS.
The Universal Resource Interface Module (URIM) is an extremely flexible framework for rapidly integrating new
sensors into the JFPASS. Each sensor system has its own proprietary protocol, which makes integration high cost and
risk. The URIM communicates directly with each sensor system though a protocol module and maintains a generic data
object representation for each sensor. The URIM then performs a translation of the data into a single protocol, in this
case Systems Engineering and Integration Working Group (SEIWG) ICD-0100. With this common protocol the data
can be provided to a data server for publishing. Also, this allows for network control and management of all sensor
systems via any C2 node connected to the data server.
The FPJE was an experiment to consider the best way to create a system of systems in the realm of Force Protection. It
was sponsored by Physical Security Equipment Action Group (PSEAG) and Joint Program Manager - Guardian (JPMG),
and was managed by the Product Manager - Force Protection Systems (PM-FPS). The experiment attempted to
understand the challenges associated with integrating disparate systems into a cohesive unit, and then the compounding
challenge of handling the flow of data into the system and its dispersion to all subscribed Command and Control (C2)
nodes. To handle this data flow we created the DFE based on the framework of the Joint Battlespace Command and
Control System for Manned and Unmanned Assets (JBC2S).
The DFE is a data server that receives information from the network of systems via the Security Equipment Integration
Working Group (SEIWG) ICD-0100 protocol, processes the data through static fusion algorithms, and then publishes the
fused data to the C2 nodes, in this case JBC2S and the Tactical Automated Security System (TASS). The DFE uses only
known concepts and algorithms for its fusion efforts. This paper discusses the analyzed impact of the fusion on C2
nodes displays and in turn on the operators. Also, this paper discusses the lessons learned about networked control
combined with DFE generated automatic response. Finally, this paper discusses possible future efforts and their benefits
for providing the useful operational picture to the operator.
The FPJE was an experiment to consider the best way to develop and evaluate a system of systems approach to Force
Protection. It was sponsored by Physical Security Equipment Action Group (PSEAG) and Joint Program Manager -
Guardian (JPM-G), and was managed by the Product Manager - Force Protection Systems (PM-FPS). The experiment
was an effort to utilize existing technical solutions from all branches of the military in order to provide more efficient
and effective force protection. The FPJE consisted of four separate Integration Assessments (IA), which were intended
as opportunities to assess the status of integration, automation and fusion efforts, and the effectiveness of the current
configuration and "system" components. The underlying goal of the FPJE was to increase integration, automation, and
fusion of the many different sensors and their data to provide enhanced situational awareness and a common operational
One such sensor system is the Battlefield Anti-Intrusion System (BAIS), which is a system of seismic and acoustic
unmanned ground sensors. These sensors were originally designed for employment by infantry soldiers at the platoon
level to provide early warning of personnel and vehicle intrusion in austere environments. However, when employed
around airfields and high traffic areas, the sensitivity of these sensors can cause an excessive number of detections.
During the second FPJE-IA all of the BAIS detections and the locations of all Opposing Forces were logged and
analyzed to determine the accuracy rate of the sensors. This analysis revealed that with minimal filtering of detections,
the number of false positives and false negatives could be reduced substantially to manageable levels while using the
sensors within extreme operational acoustic and seismic noise conditions that are beyond the design requirements.