Un-cooled microbolometer sensors used in modern infrared night vision systems such as driver vehicle enhancement
(DVE) or thermal weapons sights (TWS) require a mechanical shutter. Although much consideration is given to
the performance requirements of the sensor, supporting electronic components and imaging optics, the shutter
technology required to survive in combat is typically the last consideration in the system design.
Electro-mechanical shutters used in military IR applications must be reliable in temperature extremes from a low
temperature of -40°C to a high temperature of +70°C. They must be extremely light weight while having the ability to
withstand the high vibration and shock forces associated with systems mounted in military combat vehicles, weapon
telescopic sights, or downed unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Electro-mechanical shutters must have minimal power
consumption and contain circuitry integrated into the shutter to manage battery power while simultaneously adapting to
changes in electrical component operating parameters caused by extreme temperature variations.
The technology required to produce a miniature electro-mechanical shutter capable of fitting into a rifle scope with
these capabilities requires innovations in mechanical design, material science, and electronics. This paper describes a
new, miniature electro-mechanical shutter technology with integrated power management electronics designed for
extreme service infra-red night vision systems.
Collimated laser-Plasma Lithography (CPL) offers potential to match Next Generation Lithography (NGL) needs, ending a pursuit of ever-larger lens NA and ever-smaller k1 process resolution factor. Powered by a laser-produced plasma (LPP) source at 1nm, it capitalizes on mature development of x-ray lithography, which is the only NGL that has produced working chips. JMAR is upgrading its CPL system to increase overall throughput (system power) and is focusing on solving a known industry problem for which CPL presents an advantage: printing sub-90nm contacts in memory chips.
The paper will discuss CPL system characteristics and performance. Supporting information on the upgrades to the laser and x-ray generator will be included. Specific resists and mask techniques and the roadmap leading to multi-generational support capability down to the 45nm node will be described.
JMAR develops Laser-Produced Plasma (LPP) sources for lithography applications, and has specifically developed Collimated laser-Plasma Lithography (CPL) as a 1 nm collimated point source and stepper system to address sub-100nm lithography needs. We describe the CPL source development, show demonstrated sub-100nm printing capability, and describe status of a beta lithography tool. The system will be power-scaled to address silicon device contacts and vias at 90nm and below. This development has much in common with LPP Extreme UltraViolet Lithography (EUVL) sources; an EUV source concept is presented to address the high power requirements of that Next Generation Lithography (NGL).
In the world of micro- Lithography, several options exist for obtaining features below the 100nm level. Options include a variety of methods which range from additional process steps in etch, multilayer resist systems, or expensive throughput limited direct write E-beam systems. Each comes with a handful of trade offs in uniformity, repeatability and cost. Collimated (LASER) Plasma Lithography (CPL), on the other hand offers a full field exposure with minimal process intervention to obtain resolution below the 100nm barrier. CPL, uses a membrane 1x proximity mask and a collimated light source with energy peaking at 11 A°. By using a mask, an entire 22mm x 22mm field (30mm x 30mm with the next generation) can be exposed at once regardless of chip density, removing any throughput concerns as well as placement, stitching and typical E-beam machine flaw defects. Collimation, provides a predictable flux of energy to ensure minimal global divergence and energy level variation. Energy at 11 A°, allows for a high level of uniformity and penetration within the resist, without introducing resolution compromising scattering or standing wave effects.
This Paper will demonstrate the capabilities of CPL as well as the advantages over traditional lithography in obtaining features below 100nm. We will also depict process techniques which take full advantage of improvements in CAR, and experiments which suggest reduction possibilities through variables in mask fabrication.