The calculations of the anomaly criteria for average annual values of air temperature at the Earth's surface in the European, Siberian and Far Eastern sectors for the period 1948-2018 have been performed according to NCEP / NCAR Reanalysis. Changes in the criteria for temperature anomalies near the Earth's surface and at altitudes of isobaric surfaces of 850 hPa (lower troposphere), 500 hPa (middle troposphere) and 300 hPa (upper troposphere) are analyzed. The results indicate an increase in the degree of temperature variability in the period 2007-2018 and increasing the area of the territory with an anomalous distribution of average temperatures. Also, good agreement was found on changes in temperature anomalies in the regions.
The paper presents the results of 2D numerical simulations with a magnetohydrodynamic model "shallow water" which was used to estimate the influence of magnetic field on increments of instabilities in the tachocline caused by anomalies of the mean flow. Calculations confirmed the previously obtained result about the strong influence of anomalies of the mean flow on the instabilities of the differential rotation. Average magnetic field of relatively small magnitude stabilized development instabilities, but when it reaches a critical value, stabilization stopped and typical time of instabilities development sharply decreased. Also instabilities significantly well depended on amplitudes of initial perturbation velocity field and the magnetic field.