There are two opposing points of view on the nature of light: the first one manifests the wave-particle duality as a fundamental property of the nature; the second one claims that photons do not exist and the light is a continuous classical wave, while the so-called “quantum” properties of this field appear only as a result of its interaction with matter. In this paper we show that many quantum phenomena which are traditionally described by quantum electrodynamics can be described if light is considered within the limits of classical electrodynamics without quantization of radiation. These phenomena include the double-slit experiment, the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect, the so-called multiphoton ionisation of atoms, etc. We show that this point of view allows also explaining the “wave-particle duality” of light in Wiener experiments with standing waves. We show that the Born rule for light can easily be derived from Fermi’s golden rule as an approximation for low-intense light or for short exposure time. We show that the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for “photons” has a simple classical sense and cannot be considered as a fundamental limitation of accuracy of simultaneous measurements of position and momentum or time and energy. We conclude that the concept of a “photon” is superfluous in explanation of light-matter interactions.
The wave-particle duality is a fundamental property of the nature. At the same time, it is one of the greatest mysteries of modern physics. This gave rise to a whole direction in quantum physics - the interpretation of quantum mechanics. The Wiener experiments demonstrating the wave-particle duality of light are discussed. It is shown that almost all interpretations of quantum mechanics allow explaining the double-slit experiments, but are powerless to explain the Wiener experiments. The reason of the paradox, associated with the wave-particle duality is analyzed. The quantum theory consists of two independent parts: (i) the dynamic equations describing the behavior of a quantum object (for example, the Schrodinger or Maxwell equations), and (ii) the Born’s rule, the relation between the wave function and the probability of finding the particle at a given point. It is shown that precisely the Born’s rule results in paradox in explaining the wave-particle duality. In order to eliminate this paradox, we propose a new rational interpretation of the wave-particle duality and associated new rule, connecting the corpuscular and wave properties of quantum objects. It is shown that this new rational interpretation of the wave-particle duality allows using the classic images of particle and wave in explaining the quantum mechanical and optical phenomena, does not result in paradox in explaining the doubleslit experiments and Wiener experiments, and does not contradict to the modern quantum mechanical concepts. It is shown that the Born’s rule follows immediately from proposed new rules as an approximation.