Modeling and simulation has been widely used as a training and educational tool for depicting different evacuation strategies and damage control decisions during evacuation. However, there are few simulation environments that can include human behavior with low to high levels of fidelity. It is well known that crowd stampede induced by panic leads to fatalities as people are crushed or trampled. Our proposed goal finding application can be used to model situations that are difficult to test in real-life due to safety considerations. It is able to include agent characteristics and behaviors. Findings of this model are very encouraging as agents are able to assume various roles to utilize fuzzy logic on the way to reaching their goals. Fuzzy logic is used to model stress, panic and the uncertainty of emotions. The fuzzy rules link these parts together while feeding into behavioral rules. The contributions of this paper lies in our approach of utilizing fuzzy logic to show learning and adaptive behavior of agents in a goal finding application. The proposed application will aid in running multiple evacuation drills for what-if scenarios by incorporating human behavioral characteristics that can scale from a room to building. Our results show that the inclusion of fuzzy attributes made the evacuation time of the agents closer to the real time drills.
Augmented Reality enables people to remain connected with the physical environment they are in, and invites them to look at the world from new and alternative perspectives. There has been an increasing interest in emergency evacuation applications for mobile devices. Nearly all the smart phones these days are Wi-Fi and GPS enabled. In this paper, we propose a novel emergency evacuation system that will help people to safely evacuate a building in case of an emergency situation. It will further enhance knowledge and understanding of where the exits are in the building and safety evacuation procedures. We have applied mobile augmented reality (mobile AR) to create an application with Unity 3D gaming engine. We show how the mobile AR application is able to display a 3D model of the building and animation of people evacuation using markers and web camera. The system gives a visual representation of a building in 3D space, allowing people to see where exits are in the building through the use of a smart phone or tablets. Pilot studies were conducted with the system showing its partial success and demonstrated the effectiveness of the application in emergency evacuation. Our computer vision methods give good results when the markers are closer to the camera, but accuracy decreases when the markers are far away from the camera.
There has been an increasing interest of unmanned vehicles keeping the importance of defense and security. A few
models for a convoy of unmanned vehicle exist in literature. The objective of this paper is to exploit agent based
modeling technique for a convoy of unmanned vehicles where each vehicle is an agent. Using this approach, the convoy
of vehicles reaches a specified goal from a starting point. Each agent is associated with number of sensors. The agents
make intelligent decisions based on sensor inputs and at the same time maintaining their group capability and behavior.
The simulation is done for a battlefield environment from a single starting point to a single goal. This approach can be
extended for multiple starting points to reach multiple goals. The simulation gives the time taken by the convoy to reach
a goal from its initial position. In the battlefield environment, commanders make various tactical decisions depending
upon the location of an enemy outpost, minefields, number of soldiers in platoons, and barriers. The simulation can help
the commander to make effective decisions depending on battlefield, convoy and obstacles to reach a particular goal.
The paper describes the proposed approach and gives the simulation results. The paper also gives problems for future
research in this area.