The detection properties of a chalcopyrite zinc germanium diphosphide (ZnGeP<sub>2</sub>, ZGP) electro-optic (EO) crystal, having thickness of 1080 μm and cut along the <012> plane, is studied in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. Outstanding phase matching is achieved between the optical probe pulse and the THz frequency components, leading to a large EO detection bandwidth. ZGP has the ability to measure frequencies that are 1.3 and 1.2 times greater than that of ZnTe for crystal thicknesses of 1080 and 500 μm, respectively. Furthermore, the ZGP crystal is able to detect frequency components that are ≥4.6 times larger than both ZnSe and GaP (for crystal thicknesses of 1080 μm) and ≥2.2 times larger than ZnSe and GaP (for crystal thicknesses of 500 μm).
We show the reduction of the nonlinear electron emission order of an eCarbon/gold bilayer driven by a surface plasmon wave. The eCarbon layer allows for higher confined electric fields and increased electric field enhancement which increases lower order electron emission compared to an Au film. This bilayer represents a unique platform for the next generation of ultrafast electron sources operating at low laser intensities.
We present the design of an ultrafast conical lens based nanoplasmonic electron gun. Through excitation with a radially polarized laser pulse, and a combination of magnetostatic and spatial filtering, high energy electron packets with attosecond durations can be achieved.
We propose an ultrafast, all-optical mechanism utilizing ultrashort terahertz electric field pulses to tailor the kinetic energy and directivity of surface plasmon generated electron pulses. By varying the electric field strength of a single applied terahertz pulse, the angular spread, directivity and peak kinetic energy can be controlled. Further control over the kinetic energy range can be obtained through varying the time delay of a second terahertz electric field pulse with respect to the first. It is also observed that the carrier envelope phase dependency of the kinetic energy is maintained in the presence of a terahertz electric field.
We present the detailed investigation of an ultrafast silicon based nanoplasmonic three terminal device. The device operates on the principle of ponderomotive acceleration of two-photon absorption generated electrons within a nanoplasmonic waveguide structure. Due to high spatial mode confinement, high spatial asymmetry, and high enhancement of the nanoplasmonic electric field, electrons are accelerated to high kinetic energies and are directed towards the copper anode generating an output current. Application of a negative grid voltage modulates an effective energy barrier that restricts the number of electrons reaching the anode, thus reducing the output current. Operating at electric field strengths up to 1×10<sup>7</sup> V/cm generates a 150 fs output current pulse of 628 mA/μm. Careful consideration of the materials used facilitates monolithic integration with current complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor nanoelectronics devices.