Head-mounted displays (HMDs) are popular for viewing stereoscopic imagery due of their immersive qualities. However, symptoms and visual problems are commonly associated with their use. The discrepancy between vergence and accommodation cues, present in stereoscopic imagery, has been implicated in these adverse effects. The aim of this investigation was to develop a high resolution but relatively inexpensive on-line vergence monitoring system for use within a HMD to enable important information about the vergence response to be obtained. The new vergence monitoring system utilized infrared (IR) light emitting diodes (LEDs) for illumination and miniature charge couple infrared (CCIR) cameras, one for each eye, to capture images of the eyes. The infrared light reflected from the eyes was directed to the cameras via cube beam splitters which allowed an uninterrupted line of sight to the HMD screens. An image acquisition board was used to capture the images and a program was designed using LabVIEW to process the images. The resolution was at least 0.2 degrees, which translates to vergence changes of 7 cm from the image plane of the V6 HMD. The vergence monitoring system enables a better understanding of the contribution of accommodation and vergence mismatch to symptoms and visual problems associated with viewing stereoscopic imagery.